ABSTRACT: People's Republic of China has recorded an impressive economic growth since the beginning of the 1980s. There are no doubt about these outstanding economic results. However, we argue that this outstanding economic growth is not translated into human development as it could. Indeed, since 1990s, large part of the rural population is marginalized and the temporary workers (the 140 million of floating population), that 'nourish' the high rates of GDP growth, are clearly not taking advantage from it. These are central issues for the future of Chinese people well-being and, considering the 'size' of the country and its challenges in the globalized competition, for the rest of the world.
The aims of this paper are two. The first aim is to present a model that examines the economic and institutional mechanisms related to the outstanding Chinese economic growth on one side and the scarce human development of large part of its population on the other. The second aim is to draw some policy implications accordingly