Policy Library

An archive of research and position papers from think tanks and other institutions.

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The Rights of Nature: Reconsidered

Peter Burdon 03/31/15

Peter Burdon argues that the environmental rights movement would benefit from more strenuous critical engagement with the question of nature's potential legal "rights."

Advancing Sustainable Business in China

Isabel Hilton

This special issue of chinadialogue's journal exposes polluters and highlights some of the best examples and models of sustainability in China today.

The BRICS Development Bank: Why the World's Newest Global Bank Must Adopt a Pro-Poor Agenda

Oxfam International 07/25/14

Oxfam International argues that the newly created BRICS Development Bank must commit to fighting poverty and inequality.

Reforming Taxation to Promote Growth and Equity

Joseph Stiglitz 06/12/14

This white paper outlines policy measures that can restore equitable and sustainable economic growth in the United States.

Government Procurement Agreement Should Permit Environmental and Social Linkages

Rachel Denae Thrasher 06/05/14

Since government procurement makes up such a large percentage of global trade, we should encourage governments to make positive purchasing choices with social and environmental benefits for all.

7 Policy Switches for Global Security

James Greyson 05/08/14

This paper offers seven simple leverage points that policymakers can use to develop integrated solutions to complex global problems.

Why Is Reducing Energy Subsidies a Prudent, Fair, and Transformative Policy for Indonesia?

Ndiame Diop
World Bank

With energy subsidies taking a big chunk out of Indonesia's budget, the time is right to roll them back and pay for vital services like infrastructure and health instead.

Sustainable Sourcing of Phytochemicals as a Development Tool: The Case of Somaliland's Frankincense Industry

Anjanette DeCarlo, Saleem H. Ali
Institute for Environmental Diplomacy & Security

This study examines the role the phytochemical sector can play in creating a supply chain for a sustainable niche market.

Development AND Gorillas?

International Institute for Environment and Development 03/03/14

Integrated conservation and development strategies have shown promise in protecting the mountain gorillas of Uganda while also improving livelihoods.

New Growth Models

World Economic Forum 02/27/14

New growth models will take time to develop. They will require shifts and innovations in policies, changes in values, and new coalitions to accomplish complex transitions.

Working for the Few: Political Capture and Economic Inequality

Oxfam International 02/14/14

Left unchecked, the corrosive effects of inequality lead to opportunity capture where the lowest tax rates, best education, and best healthcare are claimed by the rich.

Community Forestry in Nepal: An Innovation for Local Livelihoods

International Food Policy Research Institute 02/13/14

The Community Forestry Program in Nepal is a global innovation in participatory environmental governance that encompasses well-defined policies, institutions, and practices.

Federally Supported Innovations: 22 Major Technology Advances

Information Technology and Innovation Foundation 02/04/14

From ARPANET to LED lighting and beyond, this report identifies 22 examples of major technology advances that stemmed from federal research support.

Ethics in Finance: Robin Cosgrove Prize 2012–2013

Robin Cosgrove Prize for Ethics in Finance 12/19/13

Check out these 11 great essays nominated for the 2012-2013 Robin Cosgrove Prize for Ethics in Finance. LIBOR, social impact, do no harm, sustainability strategies, and more.

The Acceleration of Innovation in Climate Policy

Martin Jaenicke
Free University of Berlin

This paper from the Free University of Berlin describes eight best practice cases in which the diffusion of low-carbon technologies has been accelerated by policies.

Climate-Smart Agriculture

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation 11/13/13

While many agencies and projects promote climate-smart agriculture, few have shown widespread uptake. This booklet tells some of the success stories from around the world.

Paradoxes and Dilemmas for Stakeholder Responsive Firms in the Extractive Sector: Lessons from the case of Shell and the Ogoni

David Wheeler, Heike Fabig and Richard Boele describe the case of Shell and the Ogoni and attempt to draw out some of the lessons of that case for more sustainable operations in the developing world.

Biotechnology Innovation for Inclusive Growth

World Bank 10/28/13

This paper analyzes policy initiatives in India to adapt and commercialize existing biotechnologies to meet local needs in a more affordable manner.

Nudging Legally: Checks and Balances of Behavioral Regulation


This paper suggests that behavioral insights can be integrated with public policymaking without compromising citizens' rights and freedoms.

10 Things We've Learned about Tackling Global Poverty

Acumen 09/13/13

Acumen ranks and explains 10 important lessons the fund has learned over the years while working to tackle global poverty.

Intergenerational Justice in Comparison across the OECD


A new index measures whether societies are saving for the future or leaving unsustainable legacies of public debt, child poverty, and pollution.

Innovation and the City: Part 2


As cities generate new solutions to a wide variety of vexing problems, sharing information about what works and what doesn't has become more important than ever.

Skin in the Game as a Required Heuristic for Acting under Uncertainty

Constantine Sandis, Nassim Nicholas Taleb 07/25/13

How are we to act in the face of all the uncertainty that remains after we have become aware of our ignorance?

Tackling Wicked Problems


Wicked problems require innovative, comprehensive solutions that can be modified in light of experience and feedback. This paper identifies some of the main ingredients required in this evolving art.

Proven Anti-hunger Strategies

Thomas W. Pogge, Timothy Wise
Ethics & International Affairs

Beyond economic growth and safety nets there exists a wide range of proven anti-hunger strategies that deserve greater attention in the current policy-making context.

Civic Innovation Today and Tomorrow: The 2050 City

Alissa Black, Rachel Burstein
New America Foundation

This white paper explores the role of civic innovation in developing solutions for urban democracy. While technology can empower innovation, it does not drive it.

The Way Forward for Renewable Energy in Central America

Alexander Ochs
Worldwatch Institute

Central America can power its economies in large part with renewable energy sources, helping the region to address some of its most pressing development challenges.

Innovation and the City: 15 Policies for New York and Beyond


Cities across the country and around the globe have pioneered a number of innovative policies that have clear potential for replication in New York. This report compiles 15 of them.

Nanotech for Green Innovation

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 06/19/13

Nanotechnology has the potential to address social and environmental challenges while supporting industrial competitiveness and economic growth, says this OECD report.

Governing for Eco-City Innovation


Rising interest in eco-city initiatives prompts questions about what innovation processes are needed and how these can be facilitated by appropriate governance mechanisms.

Breaking the Binary

Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship 04/26/13

This Schwab Foundation guide for scaling social innovation examines case studies of policy experimentation from Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe.

Oceans of Innovation


What kind of leadership will the twenty-first century require? Are education systems in the Pacific region ready and innovative enough to provide this leadership?

Global Norms as Public Goods

Hakan Altinay
Global Policy journal

Global interdependence demands that we nurture trust, strengthen the fragile fabric of global norms, and forge a sense of global civics.

Why Tibet Is Burning


More than 100 people have set themselves on fire in recent years protesting China's policies in Tibet. This white paper from the Central Tibetan Administration examines the underlying causes.

International Financial Institutions and Financial Accountability

Kunibert Raffer
Ethics & International Affairs

While useful proposals to reform International Financial Institutions (IFIs) have been widely discussed, the lack of meaningful financial accountability has received little attention. Considering the substantial damage done by IFIs, this is surprising both from an ethical and an economist’s point of view.

Fair Trade Marketing: An Alternative System for Globalization Development


Fair trade marketing gives consumers the option of paying higher prices for imported goods so that developing world producers can have a decent standard of living.

Fairtrade and Fairmined Gold

Alliance for Responsible Mining 02/11/13

The international fair trade movement and the Alliance for Responsible Mining are working to bring to market the first-ever Fairtrade and Fairmined certified gold jewelry, using a clear set of standards.

Chinese Renewable Energy Technology Exports


High-income countries with large renewable energy markets and demand-side policy support are increasingly importing solar and wind power components from China.

Ecological Cooperation in South Asia: The Way Forward

Saleem H. Ali
New America Foundation

Resilience to environmental stressors such as flood and drought will be enhanced by regional approaches to ecological cooperation.

Briefing Note: Background, Concept, System, and Market Approach of the Global Currency Union

Global Currency Union 12/18/12

The Global Currency Union intends to become a valuable new feature of international finance by providing stability in currency exchanges and thereby increase commerce and the general prosperity.

Green Growth Innovation: New Pathways for International Cooperation

The Brookings Institution 11/20/12

This Brookings Institution report shows how innovations in green technology and international coordination represent a transformational approach to the world's thorniest development and environment challenges.

The Outsider's Guide to Supporting Nonviolent Resistance to Dictatorship


A group of experts on nonviolence gathered in New York to compile a list of techniques that can be and have been used against repressive dictatorships.

Allowing for Creativity, Social Complexity, and Uncertainty in Public Governance


In order to respond effectively to complexity and uncertainty, governments need to consider innovating the processes and practices of public policy itself.

Using ICT to Enable Agricultural Innovation Systems

World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization 10/23/12

The potential of ICTs to help small farmers exchange information is clear. World Bank and FAO hosted a discussion on current projects that are expected to bring beneficial results.

Seed, Fertilizer, and Innovation in Bangladesh

International Food Policy Research Institute 10/22/12

How can resource-poor farmers gain access to beneficial new technologies? A new paper from the International Food Policy Research Institute looks at agricultural markets in Bangladesh.

How Mongolia Learned from Chile on Managing a Mineral-Rich Economy

World Bank 09/28/12

The global downturn exposed serious weaknesses in the management of Mongolia's natural resource wealth, prompting an intensive south-south policy exchange with Chile to help manage boom-bust cycles.

Policies for Inclusive and Balanced Growth

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 09/13/12

UNCTAD argues that rising inequality is neither a necessary condition for sound economic growth, nor its natural result. Full participation of all citizens in the proceeds of the economy is indispensable for successful and sustained development.

Global Warming and the Problem of Policy Innovation


This essay asks whether we can identify the factors that made environmental policy innovation possible in the late 1960s and early 1970s and if those factors can be produced once again.

Human Engineering and Climate Change


Human engineering is potentially less risky than geoengineering, and it could help behavioral and market solutions succeed in mitigating climate change, but it comes with ethical concerns.

Crowdsourcing Good Governance in International Development

PRAXIS: The Fletcher Journal of Human Security 08/27/12

This paper is meant to be a primer on crowdsourcing as an informational resource for development, crisis response, and post-conflict recovery. Government accountability can be increased and poor performance corrected through openness and citizen empowerment.

International Resource Politics

Heinrich Böll Stiftung 07/18/12

This new report from Heinrich Boell Stiftung calls for an international metal covenant, phosphorus policy, a data hub for sustainable resource management, and other innovative green governance approaches.

Trust and Ethics in Finance

Robin Cosgrove Prize for Ethics in Finance, 07/18/12

A new book compiles six years of winning essays from the Robin Cosgrove Prize for Ethics in Finance, showing that the workplace is not morally neutral territory.

Innovation: Applying Knowledge in Development

Calestous Juma 06/05/12

The aim of this report is to share lessons learned from the past five decades of applying science, technology, and innovation to development.

Between Coercion and Discourse

Jessica Schulberg 05/17/12

In July 2008, a developing country coalition led by Brazil, India, and China, switched its position and chose to back stringent intellectual property standards in a WTO document. This change in behavior is an interesting mystery worth solving.

Myths and Facts: The German Switch from Nuclear to Renewables

Heinrich Böll Stiftung 05/04/12

Will Germany have to import nuclear energy? Aren't renewables raising the cost of power? Craig Morris answers the pressing questions about Germany's energy transition.

Climate Change Adaptation Finance

Nancy Birdsall, Michele de Nevers
Center for Global Development

Climate change adaptation finance is not development assistance. If adaptation transfers are to be effective and sustained, the habits, culture, and practices of traditional aid programs need to be set aside.

Montreal and Kyoto: A Tale of Two Protocols

Cass Sunstein 04/18/12

If you want the United States to sign an international climate agreement, the benefits better outweigh the sacrifices, says Cass Sunstein. The Montreal ozone treaty was easier because even unilateral action was favorable.

Hamlet without the Prince of Denmark

Ha-Joon Chang 04/03/12

The current concept of development lacks a vision for transformation in the productive structure of society and can thus impede the move toward superior knowledge, technology, and institutions.

State of the Planet Declaration


As consumption accelerates everywhere and world population rises, a distant ideal of sustainable development is no longer sufficient. Global sustainability must become a foundation of society.

World Happiness Report

Jeffrey Sachs 04/02/12

As knowledge increases, societies will have a growing basis for a new type of policy-making aimed at increasing happiness and reducing misery.

Impact at Scale


This report explores the importance of institutional asset owners in the United States as an important category of social and environmental investors. With assets over $20 trillion, they play a big role in domestic and world capital markets.

The Global Innovation Policy Index

Information Technology and Innovation Foundation 03/12/12

Nations are unlikely to achieve sustainably high rates of innovation if their governments have not put in place a range of enabling policies. This report assesses the innovation capacity of 55 countries and highlights best practices.

Enforcement Not Extinction


This position paper from the Environmental Investigation Agency outlines a range of global law enforcement strategies that are key to the survival of the wild tiger.

Resolving the Food Crisis

Timothy Wise, Sophia Murphy
Global Development and Environment Institute, Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy

The recent spikes in global food prices served as a wake-up call to the global community, but what has really changed in the global policy response?

Acid Rain: Reflections on 20 Years of Policy Innovation

Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government 02/06/12

This policy brief examines the design, enactment, implementation, and performance of the world's first large-scale pollutant cap-and-trade system: the acid rain amendments to the Clean Air Act.

Small-Scale Bioenergy Initiatives

Food and Agriculture Organization, Policy Innovation Systems for Clean Energy Security 02/02/12

Fifteen case studies in 12 countries demonstrate that natural resource efficiency is possible in small-scale bioenergy initiatives, such as biodigesters and efficient stoves.

Overcoming the Global Impact of Neglected Tropical Diseases

World Health Organization 02/02/12

Efforts to combat the neglected tropical diseases reached a turning point in 2007 when WHO convened a meeting of global partners. This roadmap represents their next step in developing innovative, cost-effective solutions.

Social Protection Floors for Inclusive Globalization

International Labour Organization 01/10/12

Social protection floors are based on the idea that everyone should enjoy income security sufficient enough to live, thrive, and educate themselves. This ILO report shows they are necessary, feasible, and effective.

Towards a Green Economy

United Nations Environment Programme 01/10/12

This UNEP reports shows increasing evidence of a new economic paradigm in which material wealth is not delivered at the expense of growing environmental risks, ecological scarcities, and social disparities.

Salvaging Durban with Clean Energy Innovation

Information Technology and Innovation Foundation 11/29/11

It's time to stop pretending we can solve climate change with unenforceable pledges to use fossil fuels a little less, says ITIF. It's time for some new ideas and better tools, such as making innovation central to the Durban negotiations.

Development-led Globalization

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 11/28/11

Finding the appropriate mixture of reflation, redistribution, and regulatory measures to stabilize the global economy is now the urgent task of policymakers, says UNCTAD Secretary-General Supachai Panitchpakdi.

From Canopy to Currency

Forest Trends 11/07/11

A number of innovative solutions have evolved to overcome many of the hurdles facing market-based forest conservation and to attract private sector investment. Policymakers are developing funding at an unprecedented scale.

The MDGs and Social Policy Innovations from South Asia

Gabriele Köhler
Comparative Research Program on Poverty

South Asia is becoming a hotbed of experimentation with a new generation of policies aimed at jobs, poverty, exclusion, and access to information.

The New Harvest: Agricultural Innovation in Africa

Calestous Juma 10/04/11

Filled with success stories from developing nations around the world, The New Harvest outlines the policies and institutional changes necessary to promote agricultural innovation in Africa.

Viewing Japan from Vietnam

Devin T. Stewart 09/13/11

The March 11 earthquake, tsunami, and resulting nuclear accident have led some to question the health of Japan's image abroad. The view from Vietnam looks good.

Exporting Energy Security: Keystone XL Exposed


The construction of Keystone XL will feed the growing trend of exporting refined products out of the United States, thereby doing nothing to enhance energy security or to stabilize oil prices or gasoline prices at the pump.

Biofuels: Ethical Issues

Nuffield Council on Bioethics 08/25/11

Concerns over energy security, economic development, and climate change are driving the development of biofuels. This report sets out an ethical framework to guide policymaking for current and future biofuels.

Carbon Capture and Utilization

Centre for Low Carbon Futures 07/25/11

This paper gives a brief technical and economic assessment of carbon capture and utilization as a partial alternative to geological storage of carbon dioxide.

Medical Innovations in Humanitarian Situations: The Work of MSF

Doctors Without Borders 07/13/11

Through a series of case studies, Doctors Without Borders reflects on how its aid workers have dealt with practicing conventional medicine in contexts that require innovation.

Grounding Green Power

The German Marshall Fund of the United States, Heinrich Böll Stiftung, World Resources Institute 06/24/11

This working paper identifies key components of smart renewable energy policy in developing countries, and recommends maximizing the effectiveness of international support for renewable energy deployment.

Power and Conflict in the Contested Commons

Santa Fe Institute 05/24/11

Many problems of environmental degradation are adequately captured by standard models of overexploitation of a common resource, but in some cases the tragedy is exacerbated by external actors who reduce the capacity for sustainable exploitation.

Science and Innovation for Development


Development policy makers seem to listen to social scientists or natural scientists, but rarely both. This book presents a clearer picture of the role that science and innovation can play.

39 Innovations Nourishing People and the Planet

Worldwatch Institute 04/25/11

Alleviating hunger and poverty while also protecting the environment depends on agricultural innovations from the fields, forests, markets, kitchens, backyards, and rooftops of the world.

Radioactive Revenues

Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations 04/05/11

For African countries, the revenue derived from the uranium mining operations of multinational corporations is minimal, uncertain, and volatile despite the high price of uranium.

Urban Innovation

Philip E. Auerswald
Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization

This special edition of Innovations journal was produced for the Tulane-Rockefeller 2010 Model City conference and looks at social innovation and recovery efforts in New Orleans five years after Katrina.

Inducing Innovation

Information Technology and Innovation Foundation 03/24/11

Today, many are looking to innovations in energy technology to solve problems of global warming and fossil energy dependence. The key question is how to get that innovation.

Japan Loves You, Brother

Devin T. Stewart 03/02/11

Even before Yukio Hatoyama became Japan's prime minister, people in the country and abroad were trying to grasp his personal philosophy of yuai, an idea that translates loosely as fraternal love.

The Energy Report

World Wide Fund for Nature 02/04/11

The World Wide Fund for Nature releases a report showing how the world can achieve 100 percent renewable energy by 2050 with existing technologies.

The Determinants of Food Aid to Africa and the Developing World


Food aid is partly determined by humanitarian purposes and partly determined by objectives that are unrelated to the needs of the recipient countries, such as colonial ties and other policy objectives of the donor countries.

Do Roads Pay for Themselves?


Highway advocates often claim that roads pay for themselves, with gasoline taxes and other charges covering the cost of highway construction and maintenance. They are wrong.

From Collision to Vision

World Economic Forum 12/09/10

In the absence of binding global greenhouse gas limits, friction over green trade barriers is likely to intensify. This World Economic Forum discussion paper analyzes how to mend that rift.

China Policy for Dummies

Devin T. Stewart 10/04/10

BOOK REVIEW: Stefan Halper lacks originality in his argument that China's inroads in the developing world are shrinking the West, and that the country's values will be corrosive to Western preeminence, leading to a global war of ideas.

Build Back Better: Strategies for Societal Renewal in Haiti

Philip E. Auerswald
Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization

This special edition of Innovations journal features strategies for societal renewal in Haiti, including reports from Fonkoze, Inveneo, and Appropriate Infrastructure Development Group.

Public Works and Employment Programs

United Nations Development Program 09/23/10

This working paper makes the case for longer-term development approaches to combat systemic poverty and assesses the desirability and feasibility of adopting Employment Guarantee programs.

Assessing Progress in Africa toward the MDGs

United Nations Development Program 09/23/10

There are indicators of hope in Africa with a 50 percent decrease in malaria in 15 countries and nine countries reaching 90 percent access to safe drinking water, yet this report also stresses Africa's struggle to meet health targets.

Energy Innovation at the Crossroads of National Security

CNA 08/24/10

The Department of Defense can play an important role in supporting innovation and commercialization of clean, low-carbon energy, thereby directly contributing to America's future economic competitiveness and bolstering national security.

Responding to Climate Change Mega-Catastrophes

Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government 08/24/10

Harvard researchers present qualitative analysis of three options for mitigating the risk of climate mega-catastrophes: drastic abatement of greenhouse gas emissions, geo-engineering, and large-scale advance adaptation.

A Paradigm Shift Towards Sustainable Low-Carbon Transport: Financing the Vision ASAP

Institute for Transportation & Development Policy 08/24/10

By investing in sustainable low-carbon transport systems today, developing countries will reap various economic, social, and environmental benefits during the next half century and beyond.

Can Carbon Labeling Be Development Friendly?

World Bank 08/19/10

How can carbon labeling be made both development friendly and scientifically correct in its representation of developing-country agricultural sectors?

At the Frontiers of Cycling

John Pucher 08/19/10

This article presents six detailed case studies of cycling in the Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany that represent the very best in coordinated policies and programs to make cycling safe, convenient, and attractive.

Reinventing the City

World Wide Fund for Nature, strategy+business 08/12/10

Depending on how we develop and manage urban infrastructure during the next three decades, cities could become either a force for environmental destruction or a primary source of ecological rejuvenation.

Decent Work and Fair Globalization

Hamish Jenkins
United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service

The decent work and fair globalization agenda can help articulate a broad range of UN and civil society concerns into a coherent platform for change.

Technological Learning and Innovation

Otaviano Canuto
World Bank

As the global stock of ideas expands and diffuses across and within countries, technological learning is poised to become an even more important determinant of growth through its impact on innovation.

Becoming Vulnerable in Detention

Jesuit Refugee Service Europe 06/29/10

Migrant and asylum detainees report common negative effects despite their diversity of personal circumstances. These human costs are too high and non-custodial alternatives do exist.

The Accountability Web

Bill Baue, Marcy Murninghan
Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government

Corporate accountability and Web 2.0 share a common thread: both are rooted in interaction and thrive on engagement. This overlap creates opportunities for firms and their stakeholders.

Markets for Ecosystem Services in China

Forest Trends 06/21/10

China is developing new approaches for environmental policy, and have rapidly expanded the range of innovative programs that are laying the groundwork for the development of ecosystem service markets.

Green Bonds

Heike Reichelt
World Bank

Green bonds mobilize private capital for climate change and can serve as a first step to financing climate change mitigation and adaption projects.

Strengthening Clean Energy Competitiveness

Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, The Breakthrough Institute, The Brookings Institution 06/03/10

This report outlines how the United States can regain leadership in the global clean energy market with major investments in clean energy technology and support for bold new paradigms in clean energy education, innovation, and production and manufacturing policy.

Energy [R]evolution

Greenpeace 06/03/10

This report details how it is possible, with existing technologies, to cut CO2 emissions worldwide, create economic growth, and phase out nuclear, even in the United States.

Development Trajectories

Brian Levy
World Bank

This note introduces an evolutionary approach to economic and governance reform. It lays out two especially prevalent trajectories that differ starkly from one another in how they prioritize and sequence economic growth, state building, and the development of civil society and political institutions.

The Fifth Axis of Competition and Sustainable Value Management

Peter David Pedersen
E-Square Inc.

Green innovation and the pursuit of sustainability have become the fifth axis of competition for corporations in today's marketplace.

The Green Economy: The Race Is On

Mark Fulton 04/26/10

Government policy regimes around the world have identified climate change and clean technology as a megatrend and have begun accelerating policies to address it.

Operationalizing a Business and Human Rights Framework

John Ruggie
United Nations Human Rights Council

United Nations Special Representative John Ruggie delivers his latest report on human rights and business, suggesting a method for operationalizing the "protect, respect and remedy" framework.

Rising Tigers, Sleeping Giant

The Breakthrough Institute, Information Technology and Innovation Foundation 04/23/10

This report provides the first comprehensive comparison of public investments by the United States and key Asian competitors in core clean energy technologies, including solar, wind, and nuclear power, carbon capture and storage, advanced vehicles and batteries, and high-speed rail.

Recovering from the Global Jobs Crisis

Raymond Torres
International Labour Organization

The ILO examines the policy challenges for a sustainable recovery of the labor market and concludes that the economic rebound will remain both fragile and incomplete unless the global jobs crisis is tackled adequately.

China and a Sustainable Future

United Nations Development Program 04/15/10

China's efforts to reduce carbon intensity reflect a recognition that by investing in a green economy China has an opportunity to leapfrog over decades of traditional development based on high-polluting fuels.

A Scenario for a Revitalized Japan


This essay examines the long-term sustainability of Japan's status as the "mother factory of the world." Without global cooperation, Japan runs the risk of inefficient research and development investment.

Economic Impact of the CLEAR Act

James Boyce, Matthew Riddle
Political Economy Research Institute

The Carbon Limits and Energy for America's Renewal (CLEAR) Act would benefit the majority of households in every state, yet interstate differences in jobs and family income may be of concern to policy makers.

The Diffusion of Policy Innovations


Providing political decision-makers with information about policy innovations in other states is a causal factor in the diffusion of an efficiency-enhancing policy innovation.

Agribusiness and the Right to Food

United Nations Human Rights Council 03/11/10

The second annual report to the Human Rights Council examines the role of commodity buyers, food processors, and retailers in the realization of the right to food.

Behavioral Economics and Climate Change Policy


Seemingly rrational patterns of behavior are central to human decision-making and should be the starting point for effective economic policies.

Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy

International Monetary Fund 02/19/10

The Great Moderation lulled macroeconomists and policymakers alike in the belief that we knew how to conduct macroeconomic policy. The crisis clearly forces us to question that assessment. This IMF Staff Position Note takes a tentative first pass at the contours of a new macroeconomic policy framework.

21 Hours: How a shorter work week could help us all flourish

new economics foundation 02/17/10

A "normal" working week of 21 hours could help to address a range of urgent, interlinked problems: overwork, unemployment, high carbon emissions, low well-being, and entrenched inequalities.

Confronting the Long Crisis of Globalization

Alex Evans, Bruce Jones, David Steven
The Brookings Institution, Center on International Cooperation

The international system needs to move toward a foreign policy paradigm of shared risks through a focus on resilience, engagement, subgroups, foresight, signaling, fairness, and penalties.

ACDC 2010 Call for Papers

Ashwini Deshpande 01/29/10

The forthcoming conference invites submission of academic papers representing original and critical research focusing on the various aspects of the current global economic crisis. DEADLINE EXTENDED: February 10, 2010.

Growth Isn't Possible

new economics foundation 01/25/10

The unavoidable result under business as usual in the global economy is that, long before any general and meaningful reduction in poverty has been won, the very life-support systems that we all rely on are almost certain to have been fundamentally compromised.

Freedom to Innovate: Biotechnology in Africa's Development


African leaders are starting to view science, technology, and innovation as critical to human development, global competitiveness, and ecological management. This paper proposes strategic options for creating regional biotechnology innovation communities.

Global Survey of Environmental, Social and Governance Policies


The purpose of this survey is to provide examples of environmental, social and governance (ESG) policies and programs promoted by national governments, international organizations, institutional investors, and related organizations worldwide.

Estimating U.S. Government Subsidies to Energy Sources: 2002–2008

Environmental Law Institute 01/05/10

The vast majority of federal subsidies for fossil fuels and renewable energy support energy sources that emit high levels of greenhouse gases when used as fuel.

The Ecology of Finance

new economics foundation 12/23/09

This White Paper distills lessons from the financial crisis to showcase how alternative institutions and legislation could help develop a healthy ecology of finance that delivers social and environmental value in addition to profit.

America on the Move


Do policy innovations at the U.S. state level provide a leading indicator of the nation's overall policy direction? This report says state-level action to reduce global warming pollution is significant on a global scale.

The Energy Learning Curve™


Perhaps no challenge facing the United States today is more dependent on personal conduct and public support than energy. The simple act of pulling out of the driveway every morning has policy implications. Yet perhaps on no other issue is there so much work yet to be done.

Global Governance in a Globalized World

Harris Gleckman 12/01/09

One can see in the new global-corporate governance system analogous structures to many functions of democratic nation-states. How will its rules and outcomes get enforced, and how can international civil society alliances exert influence on the global-corporate world?

Is Development Back in the Doha Round?

Kevin Gallagher, Timothy Wise
South Centre

Claims that developing countries will be the big winners from Doha rest on shaky assumptions, controversial economic modeling, misleading representations of the benefits, and disregard for the high costs of Doha-style liberalization for many developing countries.

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity

United Nations Environment Programme 11/13/09

Building momentum for the transition to a resource-efficient economy calls for international cooperation, partnerships, and communication to protect biodiversity and ecosystems and their flows of services.

The Consumption Explosion

new economics foundation 11/12/09

The Consumption Explosion argues that a recently revived focus on global population as an environmental issue is a critical distraction from tackling over-consumption in wealthy countries.

Anti-Corruption as Strategic CSR

FSG Social Impact Advisors 11/05/09

This paper is a call to action for business to embrace anti-corruption as strategic corporate social responsibility, moving beyond risk mitigation toward proactively solving social problems critical to the business.

A Roadmap for U.S.-China Collaboration on Carbon Capture and Sequestration

Orville Schell
Asia Society

A successful U.S.-China program of collaboration on carbon capture and storage must lay the track for substantial emissions abatement through demonstration projects, research and deployment of retrofit technology, and CCS markets and finance.

Changing the Game of Finance

Hazel Henderson 10/26/09

Since the credit crises of 2008-2009, we can now assert with confidence that investing for long-term sustainability and taking environmental, social, and governance factors as material to asset valuation could have actually helped avert these crises.

International Experience in Establishing Indicators for the Circular Economy

International Institute for Sustainable Development 10/13/09

China's important role in international trade and its impact on the environment makes it of primary importance to align China's industrial metabolism with the principle of circular economy.

International Trade and Climate Change

South Centre 10/07/09

This policy brief concludes that proposals in the Waxman-Markey energy bill for unilateral restrictions on imports from developing countries contravene the principles and provisions of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Free Trade in Health Care

Dean Baker
Center for Economic and Policy Research

While health care is often place-specific in ways that manufactured goods and other traded items are not, people in the United States could still benefit from the lower-cost health care available elsewhere through an internationalization of the Medicare and Medicaid programs.

Civil Society Consultations with the International Monetary Fund on Reform of IMF Governance

New Rules for Global Finance 09/30/09

This document summarizes the thrust and scope of the consultations on the IMF coordinated by New Rules for Global Finance with the aim to formulate recommendations that form a common floor for civil society demands in terms of IMF reforms.

The Ethics of Language Choice

Florian Coulmas 09/30/09

Whenever people move they carry their immaterial possessions with them, willy-nilly: their creed, their culture and their language. This kind of baggage is not always welcome. This paper takes issue with immigrant languages, arguing that inasmuch as language is an object of political responsibility it also involves important ethical problems.

Report of the Commission of Experts of the President of the United Nations General Assembly on Reforms of the International Monetary and Financial System


Reform of the international system must have as its goal the improved functioning of the world's economic system in support of the global good. This entails simultaneously pursuing long-term objectives, such as sustainable and equitable growth, and more immediate concerns, such as addressing the challenges posed by the food and financial crises.

China's Women Sex Bloggers and Dialogic Sexual Politics on the Chinese Internet

James Farrer
Journal of Current Chinese Affairs

With the 2003 publication of Mu Zimei's sex diary and resulting controversy, millions of Chinese "netizens" became involved in a debate over sexual rights involving a wide variety of claims and counter claims to freedom of expression, social progress, natural rights, property rights, women's rights, rights of privacy, and community responsibilities.

Japan: The Power of Efficiency

Devin T. Stewart 09/10/09

With efficiency at the center of its energy policies, Japan's energy intensity has improved by 37 percent since 1973, and its oil dependency has dropped by 30 points, making it one of the largest, most energy-efficient economies in the world.

Corporate Strategy and Inadequate Governance

Susan Aaronson
World Bank

Corporate social responsibility programs can boost a company's reputation, strengthen the license to operate and help create market advantages, but there are risks that CSR can undermine good governance in less developed countries where business takes on roles beyond their core competencies.

Prosperity without Growth?


The current global recession should be the occasion to forge a new economic system equipped to avoid the shocks and negative impacts associated with our reliance on growth. This Sustainable Development Commission report calls on leaders to adopt a 12-step plan to make the transition to a fair, sustainable, low-carbon economy.

The (un)Happy Planet Index 2.0

new economics foundation 08/13/09

In an age of uncertainty, society globally needs a new compass to set it on a path of real progress. The Happy Planet Index provides that compass by measuring what truly matters to us -– our well-being in terms of long, happy, and meaningful lives –- and what matters to the planet -– our rate of resource consumption.

Climate Change, Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property Rights

Research and Information System for Developing Countries 08/12/09

In the negotiations on a global climate treaty the developing nations have put forth ideas and plans to ensure that intellectual property rights (IPRs) do not become a barrier to transfer of climate friendly technology.

Memorandum of Understanding to Enhance Cooperation on Climate Change, Energy and Environment


Cooperation on climate change, clean and efficient energy and environmental protection can serve as a pillar of the bilateral relationship, build mutual trust and respect, and lay the foundation for constructive engagement between the United States and China for years to come, while also contributing to multilateral cooperation.

The Pitfalls of Manufacturing a Market

New America Foundation 07/16/09

Within the European Trading Scheme it isn't carbon's price volatility that makes its market seem uncharacteristic of other commodities markets; commodity markets are often characterized by volatility. Instead, it is the fact that carbon's price drivers are not so easily pinpointed and, therefore, its volatility seems arbitrary.

The Economic Benefits of Investing in Clean Energy

Robert Pollin, James Heintz
Political Economy Research Institute

The United States faces an enormous challenge: successfully managing the transformation from a carbon-intensive economy to becoming a predominantly clean-energy-based economy. We need to gauge our success in curbing CO2 emissions alongside the broader effects on the U.S. economy, particularly on employment opportunities, economic growth, and peoples' incomes.

Green Prosperity

Robert Pollin
Political Economy Research Institute

The project of building a clean-energy economy will become a powerful engine of expanding employment opportunities throughout the U.S. economy. According to a study that PERI recently completed with the Center for American Progress, clean-energy investments at the level of about $150 billion per year can generate about 1.7 million net new jobs throughout the U.S. economy.

Global Savings, Assets and Financial Inclusion

New America Foundation 07/14/09

In 2000, 196 Member States of the United Nations committed themselves to halve extreme poverty in the world by the year 2015. Since then, broad availability of well-designed and appropriately delivered financial services and products, including those that lead to savings and productive assets, has become increasingly recognized as essential to alleviating poverty and fostering economic security and opportunity.

Child Savings Accounts: Global Trends in Design and Practice

New America Foundation 07/14/09

This paper aims to provide an overview of the landscape of Child Savings Accounts around the world; a summary of reasons why governments, financial institutions, and non-profits are offering CSAs; features of the accounts they offer; and a few of the obstacles these institutions face.

China's Wild West

Joshua Eisenman 07/13/09

This paper details a clash between two cultures: the Muslim Uighurs indigenous to western China, and the immigrant Han Chinese. It examines the local impacts of this cultural dialectic, as well as the broader troubles Beijing has had with separatism, drug abuse, AIDS, and militant Islam.

Sharing Global CO2 Emission Reductions among One Billion High Emitters


This paper uses the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO2 emissions are distributed among its citizens, and then proposes a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual emissions and find corresponding limits on national aggregate emissions.

Energy Discovery-Innovation Institutes

The Brookings Institution 06/29/09

The need to renew America's economy, foster its energy security, and respond to global climate change compels the transformation of U.S. energy policy. The federal government should establish a national network of regionally based Energy Discovery-Innovation Institutes to serve as the hubs of a distributed research network linking the nation's best scientists, engineers, and facilities.

Leading a Sustainable Enterprise

Jeff Hittner 06/11/09

Organizations have recently sharpened their focus on sustainability, primarily in response to consumer and stakeholder expectations. However, most lack the information required to make these strategic choices.

The Greenhouse Development Rights Framework

Stockholm Environment Institute, Heinrich Böll Stiftung 05/20/09

So constrained is the global carbon budget -- global emissions must peak and start a precipitous decline in the next decade -- that it is too late to talk of emissions reductions in Annex I countries alone. It is now necessary to secure significant cuts in emissions in the growing nations of the developing world. And yet, even in the burgeoning Chinese and Indian economies, there is still huge poverty. This is the crux of the current climate impasse.

Natural Selection, the Human Genome, and the Idea of Race

Robert Pollack 05/19/09

The emergence in our species of brains capable of mental worlds and self-awareness has paradoxically produced both the science that reveals our biological history, and the dreams of perfection that keep such imaginary notions as "Race" and racism alive.

Beyond CSR

Christine Bader
Stanford Social Innovation Review

According to the nonprofit Business & Human Rights Resource Centre, only 156 companies in the world have published human rights policies. Compare that number to the thousands that have jumped on the bandwagon to develop corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports.

Policies for Structural Change and the Role of Trade in Development: Recent Experiences in Latin America


The neoclassical approach to international trade is based on the hypothesis that commerce can be a powerful tool to drive the economic growth and development. However, Latin America has started to look again in the direction of active industrial policy instruments and to reconsider the potentialities of those policies as tools for structural change.

Slavery in Iraq

Ron Soodalter 04/06/09

It is important to look at the federal government's actions, positive and negative, in its relatively new war against human trafficking in America. Many federal officials have taken on the task of rooting out and prosecuting traffickers, as well as coordinating with service providers and victim advocates providing care for survivors.

Measuring Corporate Environmental Justice Performance

James Boyce
Political Economy Research Institute

Measures of corporate environmental justice performance can be a valuable tool in efforts to promote corporate social responsibility and to document systematic patterns of environmental injustice. This paper develops such a measure based on the extent to which toxic air emissions from industrial facilities disproportionately impact racial and ethnic minorities and low-income people.

Rethinking the Economics of Capital Mobility and Capital Controls

Thomas Palley
Political Economy Research Institute

This Working Paper reexamines the issue of international financial capital mobility, which has become today's economic orthodoxy. The policy discussion is often framed in terms of an impossible trinity, ignoring possibilities for coordinated monetary policy and exchange rates, and for managed capital flows.

How Corporate Social Responsibility is Defined


Despite numerous efforts to bring about a clear and unbiased definition of CSR, there is still some confusion as to how CSR should be defined. In this paper, five dimensions of CSR are developed through an analysis of existing CSR definitions.

The Promise and Responsibility of Community Finance

New America Foundation 03/19/09

Many communities in the United States face devastation from the current housing crisis, but communities served by Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs) have been hit harder than most. This is particularly distressing since many of these communities were brought back to health over the past 30 years through the diligent, consistent, respectful efforts of CDFIs and other community financial institutions, and their customers, clients, and partners.

Water: A Global Innovation Outlook Report


This IBM Global Innovations Outlook report on water discusses the necessity of broader data collection in the future, the ways in which the costs of collecting that data can be borne, and how water will need to be allocated and priced in the years to come.

Principles for Economic Recovery and Financial Reconstruction from Progressive Economists

Dean Baker, Radhika Balakrishnan, Nilufer Cagatay, Diane Elson, Gerald Epstein, Stephany Griffith-Jones, Caren Grown, Jose Antonio Ocampo, Thomas Palley, Robert Pollin
Political Economy Research Institute

A group of progressive economists met on November 21, 2008, at the New School for Social Research in New York to develop macroeconomic and financial policies for economic revival that can solve the short-term crisis and help put the economy on a sustainable path toward widely shared prosperity. This statement of principles evolved from that discussion.

A Progressive Program for Economic Recovery and Financial Reconstruction

Radhika Balakrishnan, Gerald Epstein, Robert Pollin, Stephany Griffith-Jones, Jose Antonio Ocampo
Political Economy Research Institute

The authors outline a group of feasible policy initiatives that can be taken by the Obama administration and coordinated globally to put people first, make the transition to a greener economy, and place front and center the important roles government and social management of markets must play to restore health, stability, and fairness to the nation's and world's economies.

International Trade Rules and Climate Change Policy

The Globalist 03/12/09

The Obama Administration has provided new leadership for tackling climate change. Yet with the limits of international trade rules, how can an effective cap and trade policy be crafted? Kevin M. Dempsey explains the complicated consequences of discriminating against imports based on carbon emissions.

Rethinking Macroeconomic Strategies from a Human Rights Perspective

Radhika Balakrishnan, Diane Elson 03/12/09

This document proposes a novel focus and methodology that allows us to evaluate macroeconomic policies from the perspective of the progressive realization of people's economic and social human rights, and states' compliance with their minimal, basic responsibilities to their people.

The Rise of the Intranet Era

New America Foundation 02/25/09

By amplifying community interconnectedness, Intranets promise to enable new forms of political and democratic engagement that expand upon present day networks and models of cooperation. Intranets are often decentralized and ad hoc, creating new challenges for surveillance and command and control as well as new opportunities for participatory media and information dissemination.

What Will it Cost to Protect Ourselves from Global Warming?

Environmental Defense Fund 02/19/09

Important parts of the world are acting to reduce the greenhouse gases that cause global warming, and the United States is now debating whether to join that process. This paper examines the potential impact of a cap on greenhouse gases on the U.S. economy as a whole and on American families.

How Much Would You Pay to Save the Planet?

Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government 02/19/09

The emerging consensus is that climate change inaction will be more costly than solving it, but "balance as bias" and under-staffing of the environment beat has hampered meaningful reporting on climate legislation and economics in the American press.

National Accounts of Well-being

new economics foundation 02/12/09

It has long been recognized that GDP fails as a meaningful measure of social progress. It values only crude increases in income and takes no account of how fairly resources are distributed or the social and environmental damage caused by growth. In response, New Economics Foundation has produced the alternative National Accounts of Well-being.

Understanding Islam through Virtual Worlds

Joshua S. Fouts, Rita J. King
Dancing Ink Productions

Carnegie Council Senior Fellows Joshua S. Fouts and Rita J. King produced a graphic novel version of their exploration of Islamic cultural manifestations in the virtual world of Second Life. Download the PDF to get a glimpse of the creativity and interactivity they experienced while researching the public diplomacy potential of these spaces.

CODE OF PRACTICES: Responsible Jewellery Council


The Code of Practices of the Responsible Jewellery Council defines responsible ethical, social, human rights, and environmental practices for businesses in the diamond and gold jewellery supply chain. The Code of Practices was formally adopted by the RJC board on September 14, 2006.

Digital Diplomacy: Understanding Islam through Virtual Worlds

Joshua S. Fouts, Rita J. King
Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, Dancing Ink Productions

The Understanding Islam through Virtual Worlds project examined how the Internet can lead to public diplomacy strategies that are conducive to peaceful and substantive dialog between cultures.

Ending the R&D Crisis in Public Health

Oxfam America

This report from Oxfam America discusses inadequacies of research and development initiatives on health needs in developing countries and proposes a global framework for R&D that would improve coordination and empower developing countries to contribute to innovation.

The Democratic Republic of Congo: Rethinking State Building

Seth Kaplan 01/14/09

In this PowerPoint presentation, Seth Kaplan discusses the challenges to stabilizing the Democratic Republic of Congo and proposes alternative methods of bringing security and development to the state.

The Measure of America (PowerPoint)

Sarah Burd-Sharps, Kristen Lewis
Measure of America

Based on the UNDP Human Development Index model, Sarah Burd-Sharps and Kristen Lewis examine American well-being, revealing huge disparities in the health, education, and living standards of different groups across the nation.

Free Trade Rules


While free-trade ideas enjoy relatively low levels of public support, those views are rarely reflected in the opinion pages of America's three most important newspapers.

Nuclear Weapons and the Foreign Policy of a Post-Bush Administration


The Senate's rejection of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty has sent the wrong message about the U.S. role in promoting a more secure approach to the nuclear arms race, undermining diplomatic efforts to secure global cooperation on the relationship of nuclear arsenals to world peace and security.

Does Global Egalitarianism Provide an Impractical and Unattractive Ideal of Justice?

Christian Barry 10/15/08

Christian Barry and Pablo Gilabert review David Miller's book National Responsibility and Global Justice, arguing that Miller's general criticisms of egalitarianism are unconvincing. The authors point out various respects in which global egalitarian doctrines provide more plausible moral guidance than Miller's conception of global justice.

Ethanol and the Environment

Luiz Niemeyer 10/01/08

Ethanol production in Brazil is an example of conventional cost-and-benefit analysis that disregards important environmental considerations, casting doubt on the social viability of ethanol as a substitute for gasoline in Brazil.

Removing a Roadblock to Development

Peter Eigen
Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization

Transparency International founder Peter Eigen describes the organization's origin and the growing techniques and coalitions for combating corruption globally and locally.

Green Recovery

Robert Pollin, James Heintz
Center for American Progress, Political Economy Research Institute

This report outlines a green recovery program to strengthen the U.S. economy over the next two years and leave it in a better position for sustainable prosperity, focusing on expanded job opportunities, stabilizing the price of oil, and making significant strides toward fighting global warming and building a green, low-carbon economy.

Mediating Protests

Global Policy Forum 09/15/08

This paper examines how the media facilitates social change in democratic countries, how it catalyzes revolution in authoritarian nations, and ways in which the media (in democratic countries) can act to undermine social movements.

The World Bank's New Poverty Estimates: Digging Deeper into a Hole

Sanjay Reddy
Global Policy Forum

The World Bank's new poverty estimates are no more accurate than before, says Sanjay Reddy. They are still set far too low to cover the basic necessities required for nutrition and a minimally decent life.

Egalitarian Challenges to Global Egalitarianism

Christian Barry 08/21/08

This article critiques the arguments against global egalitarianism put forth by critics who are egalitarian, pointing toward ways in which egalitarian doctrines must be further strengthened if they are to offer a convincing response to questions of international ethics and global justice.

Global Climate Change and Sustainable Business

John Mizzoni 08/05/08

In this paper, the author sketches five arguments that support the position that businesses have a moral responsibility to move toward sustainability.

Postmodernization and the Second Enlightenment


In order for a constructively postmodern culture to emerge in China or in other parts of the world, we need what can be called a Second Enlightenment that will support modernization without environmental harm, increased inequality, and loss of faith.

TRIPS, Access to Medicines, and Developing Nations: Towards an Open Source Solution


This paper suggests that developing nations should give the Open Source model serious consideration in the search for innovative cures for neglected diseases.

Financing the Global Climate Change Response

South Centre 07/25/08

This South Centre Analytical Note stresses that the provision of financing from developed countries to developing countries is required under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Parties to the Convention could directly operate the Convention's financial mechanism by setting up a Climate Change Fund.

Co-production: A Manifesto for Growing the Core Economy

new economics foundation 07/24/08

This paper from the New Economics Foundation offers an explanation of co-production, or a means of building community based on a sense of shared responsibility and mutual support. The point of co-production, according to the paper, is to encourage the use of human skills and experience to help deliver public or voluntary service.

Civil Society Benchmarks for the Doha Preparatory Process on Financing for Development

Global Policy Forum 07/21/08

This document outlines areas of focus specified by civil society in advance of the November 2008 Financing for Development Conference in Doha.

Framework for Responsible Mining


The Framework for Responsible Mining is a joint effort by NGOs, retailers, investors, insurers, and technical experts working in the minerals sector. It outlines environmental, human rights, and social issues associated with mining and mined products.

Access to Medicine Index


The Access to Medicine Index is a comprehensive database of major pharmaceutical companies' efforts to help improve access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.

Buying Power

South Centre 07/10/08

This South Centre Analytical Note looks at the donor-driven agenda in the reform of public procurement-–the rules that guide government purchasing of goods, works and services--as one of the major components in the good governance agenda being incorporated by donors into their aid programmes.

2009 Robin Cosgrove Prize Guidelines

Robin Cosgrove Prize for Ethics in Finance 06/19/08

CALL FOR PAPERS: The Robin Cosgrove Prize for Ethics in Finance awards prize money of USD 20,000 for creative and unpublished papers setting out innovative ideas to promote ethics in finance.

Job Opportunities for the Green Economy

Robert Pollin, Jeannette Wicks-Lim
Political Economy Research Institute

In this report, PERI Co-Director Robert Pollin and Assistant Research Professor Jeannette Wicks-Lim provide a snapshot of the kinds of jobs are needed to build a green economy in the United States.

The Growth Report


The Commission on Growth and Development's final report looks at how developing countries can achieve fast, sustained, and equitable growth.

Protect, Respect, and Remedy

John Ruggie 04/21/08

This report presents a business and policy framework comprising three core principles: the state duty to protect against human rights abuses by third parties, including business; the corporate responsibility to respect human rights; and the need for more effective access to remedies.

Business & Human Rights: Corporate Recognition and Responsibility

Christine Bader
Human Rights in China

Christine Bader discusses business and state responsibilities for protecting human rights, looking at how Chinese companies compare globally.

Emergency Safeguard Measures in GATS

Center for Trade and Development 03/19/08

This paper is an attempt to understand whether the South Asian countries, with their mixed experiences of the services economy, can develop a common position regarding Emergency Safeguard Measures.

EPA Negotiations in the Caribbean Region

South Centre 03/06/08

This paper explores some of the main challenges related to the EPA negotiations in the Caribbean, particularly with respect to market access and regional integration, agriculture, manufacturing, and trade in services.

Promoting the Development of the South in the Trade and Climate Regimes

South Centre 03/06/08

The shift to a low-carbon economy requires a range of measures to support developing countries, and sufficient development policy space to allow those countries to tailor approaches to their national contexts.

Building the Green Economy

Nikhil Chandavarkar 03/05/08

This paper briefs policymakers on using the overarching concept of sustainable development to promote equitable growth and development through national development strategies.

Analysis of the Role of South-South Cooperation to Promote Governance on Intellectual Property Rights and Development

South Centre

The TRIPS Agreement of the WTO forms the core instrument with critical influence on the role of international actors and the scope of national policy making. TRIPS aim at reducing the North-South tension on IP rights protection through a multilateral system as one of its objectives.

Liberalization of Trade in Health Services

South Centre 02/05/08

The right to health is bestowed on human beings through national constitutions and various international legal instruments that have been signed and ratified by many, if not all, governments of the world. Inherent herein is the right to access basic health services; which imposes an obligation on states to ensure that these services are universally accessible to all their constituents.

Who Should Bear the TRIPS Enforcement Cost?

South Centre 02/05/08

Establishing and strengthening the enforcement of intellectual property rights is a costly exercise both in terms of budgetary outlays and the employment of skilled personnel. It is particularly expensive for many developing countries, as economic benefits will go largely to foreign firms over the intermediate term.

Fair Trade: The Challenges of Transforming Globalization

Laura Raynolds, Douglas Murray
Center for Fair and Alternative Trade Studies

This book explores the challenges and potential of Fair Trade, one of the world's most dynamic efforts to enhance global social justice and environmental sustainability through market-based social change.

Food Aid for the Hungry?

Katarina Wahlberg
Global Policy Forum

Donor countries could overcome most food aid challenges if they prioritized the needs of the poor and hungry, rather than letting national strategic and commercial interests or media coverage decide how and where to provide food aid.

Accountability in Complex Organizations: World Bank Responses to Civil Society


Although civil society efforts have led to some gains in accountability with respect to World Bank policies and projects, this paper argues that the deeper structural features of the institution--the incentives staff face and how the institution is governed--remain largely unchanged.

Is Full Employment Possible under Globalization?

Robert Pollin
Political Economy Research Institute

The key to sustained full employment, even in the face of globalization, is to achieve comparable levels of demand injections into the domestic economy through controlled public policy as opposed uncontrolled excesses of the financial markets. The most effective and egalitarian way to do this is through public investments targeted carefully at location-specific high employment investments.

Cap and Dividend: How to Curb Global Warming While Protecting the Incomes of American Families

James Boyce, Matthew Riddle
Political Economy Research Institute

A "cap-and-dividend" policy offers a simple and practical way to curb carbon emissions and protect middle-class and poor families from adverse income effects.

Why Countries Need a Donor Monitor

David Lempert 01/16/08

What goes wrong in international development assistance is not the amounts of the aid or the conditions attached to it. The heart of the problem is one of management incentives for the international actors providing assistance. Donor Monitors could regulate the industry and its standards in each donor country and also monitor overall impacts.

Foreign Investment and Sovereign Wealth Funds

New America Foundation 01/15/08

With the tremendous expected growth rates of sovereign wealth funds, it is incumbent upon policymakers to assess how best to influence how these funds are utilized and invested.

When Small Companies Dabble in Disinformation

Saif Ullah
Robin Cosgrove Prize for Ethics in Finance

The advent of the Internet has made the generation of information inexpensive and its distribution instantaneous. This fact has not been lost on managers: managers of new and small firms spend a lot of time and effort reaching out to the investing public. Using agencies that specialize in investor relations might reduce the cost of these activities and might enhance their effectiveness.

Social Impact Ratings: How to Make Responsible Investment Appealing

Jonathan Wisebrod
Robin Cosgrove Prize for Ethics in Finance

Socially responsible investors utilize various methods of influencing corporate practice, including social screening of investments, which can ultimately reward positive social impact with greater access to financing. This paper proposes a method for incorporating social impact factors as a quantitative parameter in investment analysis and a means of facilitating such analysis in practice.

In Search of Honesty and Altruism

Rania Abdul Rahim Mousa
Robin Cosgrove Prize for Ethics in Finance

Ethical dilemmas and ethical violations in finance can be attributed to an inconsistency in the conceptual framework of modern financial economic theory and the widespread use of a principal-agent model of relationship in financial transactions. This paper posits that if the financial-economic theory accepts the fact that behavioral motivations other than that of wealth maximization are both realistic and desirable, then the agency problem that economists try to deal with will become a non-problem.

Ethics or Bust: Beyond Compliance and Good Marketing

Clare Payne
Robin Cosgrove Prize for Ethics in Finance

This paper argues that ethical conduct should be a key performance indicator for the finance industry, along with profit generation and business development, and for ethics to be woven into corporate culture.

The South and Carbon Dioxide: Every Cloud Has a Silver Lining

Jem Bendell, Inderpreet Chawla
Robin Cosgrove Prize for Ethics in Finance

This paper identifies urgent interconnected challenges of climate change, unemployment, local enterprise and poverty reduction, and suggests that a new approach to socially responsible investing is required to create new frameworks for the innovative financing of sustainable enterprise in the global South.

Microfinance: Getting Money to the Poor or Making Money out of the Poor?

Joy Mueni Maina Kiiru
Robin Cosgrove Prize for Ethics in Finance

It is not necessarily wrong to reduce poverty and make some money on the side. The question however arises as to whether that is indeed what is happening with microfinance.

The effect of a mainstream approach to economic and corporate governance on development in South Africa


By Seeraj Mohamed. Important aspects of corporate governance and economic governance have become confused and conflated in the minds of many government policymakers. This paper considers how acceptance of the mainstream approach to economic governance in South Africa has negatively affected its economic development, through a loss of influence over large corporations and an inability to influence the allocation of resources toward developmental goals.

Globalization and Development

Ashwini Deshpande 12/05/07

Drawing from different domestic environments, this handbook of new perspectives suggests multiple alternatives for globalization and development, refuting the 'one-size-fits-all' approach associated with the Washington Consensus.

Trade, Technology and Gender Wage Gap


This study aims at assessing the impacts of increases in international trade on gender wage discrimination in Japan; first by using interactive variables of trade and concentration of the firm in industries and secondly by using that of trade and high-tech industries.

Integrating Development in Climate Change

Vicente Paolo Yu
South Centre

A comprehensive post-Kyoto Protocol policy framework should reflect the concern of developing countries to place their economies on a sustained and sustainable development path and the global concern to substantially reduce GHG emissions and mitigate and adapt to global warming.

Hu's on First?

Devin T. Stewart 11/26/07

In recent issues of The National Interest, there have been articles that take China's rise to both regional and global preeminence as a given. But it is worth stepping back to take a sober look at some of the very real challenges China faces -- and in particular, how China's neighbors assess these developments. Sometimes the view from Washington and New York can be a bit overly optimistic.

Deepening Integration

Julius Kiiza 11/21/07

The purpose of this paper is to critically reflect on regional integration in East Africa. East Africa will be conceptualized in terms of the member-states of the East African Community (EAC), namely, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi. The central claim of this paper is that no country is capable of reaping substantial development dividends unless its integration agenda is an extension of domestic economic mercantilism. Concerted efforts must be made to shift from the traditional nation-state borders to the regional political economy arena.

Linking Vulnerability to Poverty and Domestic Labor


By Hande Togrul. This study explores domestic labor relations between women of different classes. It argues for the emancipation of all domestic laborers as well as all other working-class men and women and advocates “wages of the housework” as a perspective in shifting debates in gender and class relations.

The Impact of Land Ownership Inequality on Rural Factor Markets

Fatma Gul Unal 11/21/07

This paper finds a positive and significant relationship between market malfunctioning and land ownership concentration. This suggests that factor markets are structurally limited in reducing existing inequalities as a result of land ownership concentration. Our findings show that in the presence of land ownership inequality, malfunctioning rural factor markets result in increased land concentration, increased income inequality, and inefficient resource allocation.

Sector Specialization Matter

Esther Dweck 11/21/07

This work tries to highlight the relative importance of different sectors in the Brazilian economy in order to point out that the relative sectoral specialization of each country is not, as the neoclassical economists point out, pre-determined in accordance with the endowment and scarcity of the factors. It depends, in fact, on the productive development of the country, which is completely linked to past and current economic policy.

Exchange Rate Policy, Patterns of Specialization, and Economic Development

Paulo Gala, Gilberto Libanio 11/21/07

This paper argues that competitive currencies contribute to the existence and maintenance of the manufacturing sector in the economy. It analyzes examples of successful exchange rate policies and claims that the industrial sector bears most of the burden when the currency appreciates, and that Brazil risks deindustrialization if there are no changes in the exchange rate regime.

Creative Destruction, Knowledge Appropriation and Structural Change


By Analia Erbes, Verónica Robert and Gabriel Yoguel. This paper is based on complex system theory applied to social science with the objective of contributing to a larger understanding of economic development. It stresses the relevance given to absorption and connectivity capacities and to the complex system properties of self-organization and adaptation in order to shed light on systems in different levels of aggregation.

Exploring the Scope for Introducing Sin Tax to Finance a Universally Accessible National Health Insurance in Zimbabwe


Freckson Tineyi Ropi outlines a multi-stakeholder research project that seeks to explore the means with which the sustainable financing of the National Health Insurance can be extended to all Zimbabweans through a "sin tax."

Which sectors can be engines of growth and employment in South Africa?

Fiona Tregenna
University of Cambridge, Faculty of Economics and Politics

The basic object of this paper is to investigate the relationship between manufacturing and services in South Africa, and the relationship of each of these sectors to growth and employment in the overall economy.

Unchained Melody: Economic Performance After the Asian Financial Crisis

Edsel L. Beja, Jr.
Ateneo Center for Economics Research and Development

Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, South Korea, and Thailand have not recouped their losses from the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Unless their economic performance is better than the recent trends, another economic miracle story is needed to reclaim past economic standings. Unless economic policies move in a positive direction – taking up the useful strategies in the past but also putting in new components for the current challenges – economic progress is limited and punctuated by crises.

Informal Sector Dynamics and its Role in the Capital Accumulation Process


By Saumyajit Bhattacharya. This paper evaluates the conceptualization of the informal sector and examines its nature and role in the context of the capitalist growth process, through an examination of two contrasting cases, those of India and South Africa.

Employment Outcomes and Export-Orientation in Kenya

Maureen Were 11/20/07

In this paper, Maureen Were investigates the impact of trade on employment outcomes in Kenya's manufacturing sector using firm-level data collected under the auspices of the World Bank's project on regional enterprise development during the period of trade liberalisation.

International Trade and Employment in Labour-Intensive Sectors in Iran

Zahra Karimi 11/20/07

In this case study on carpet-weavers in Kashan, Iran, Zahra Karimi shows that harsh international competition in conquering hand-woven carpet markets has reduced real wages of carpet-weavers and has restructured the labour force of the industry in Iran.

Regional Trade Agreements and Improved Market Access in Developed Countries

Parthapratim Pal 11/20/07

One of the most striking developments in the world trading system since the mid-1990s is the surge in Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs). This paper investigates the various aspects of RTAs, primarily focusing on North-South RTAs, and tries to understand whether there is any clear pattern between signing of RTAs and increase in Market share in developed countries. It also analyzes the possible costs a developing country will have to bear to gain the preferential market access.

A Tale of Two Tigers?


In this paper, Su-ming Khoo engages in a comparative analysis of the developmental state in Ireland and Malaysia. Khoo compares the role of the two developmental states in directing economic policy and structural transformation and examines how their development policies are socially embedded.

Increased Economic Openness and the Interface between Trade, Technology and Employment


By Shipra Nigam. This paper intends to map the interface between rising trade, growth and employment in an era of increased economic integration while focusing on its impact on the labor markets of India and China.

Economic Growth and the Environment in China

Wen Chen 11/20/07

The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesizes that environment quality deteriorates with the increase of per capita income at the early stage of economic growth and gradually improves when the country reaches to a certain level of affluence. This paper tests the availability of EKC in China, considering the country's recent rapid economic growth, and also studies the effects of economic structural change, international trade, FDI and governmental abatement effort on environmental pollutions in China.

Is Fiscal Policy Contracyclical in India?


The paper empirically examines the validity of Keynesian philosophy of contracyclical variation in fiscal policy to the macroeconomic activity in India.

An Evaluation of David Ricardo's Theory of Comparative Costs


By Oumar Bouare. Following Smith's advocacy of free trade and competition, David Ricardo attempts to strengthen his theory of absolute advantage, which excludes from international trade countries which have no advantages over others, by eliminating this weakness. To do so, Ricardo introduces to the economics literature a theory of comparative cost advantage which includes countries that do not have absolute advantages in international trade. In Ricardo's framework, these countries can still gain from free trade. This paper presents direct and indirect critiques which reveal that their advocacy of free trade is questionable.

The "Resurgence" of Globalization into Sub-Saharan Africa

Mario Biggeri 11/20/07

This paper is based on the analysis of the economic structure and the institutions that characterize Sub-Saharan African countries, and on the human development and capability approach. According to theoretical grounds and some tentative economic estimations, economic and human development in SSA cannot occur only through a sustained growth of GDP. Economic growth is definitely relevant, since it is one of the prongs meant to increase human development, but it also has to be shared by the sectors from which the poor draw most of their incomes. Public policies and investment in basic social services and in up-grading the informal and agricultural sectors are proposed in order to enhance the impact of current economic growth on social outcomes.

The Role of the Informal Sector in Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa


By Roseline Misati. This paper empirically examines the linkages between the informal sector and investment, and argues that creation of wealth and poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa is associated with a larger informal sector.

The Economics of Failed, Failing and Fragile States


One of the characteristics of poor countries lies in both the unhealthy governance provided by whatever is qualified as State and a lack of productive structure. This paper is an attempt to contribute to the improvement of the traditional and mainstream economic orthodoxy which usually denies poor nations the adequate time and economic protection to promote their industrialization process.

The New World Bank/IMF Debt Sustainability Framework

Aldo Caliari
Center of Concern

In April 2005, the "Debt Sustainability Framework," which rules out discounts debt cancellation, was adopted as the rule for managing debt in low-income borrowing countries. This paper asks the question of whether or to what extent the DSF is consistent with the human development approach to debt sustainability. In carrying out this analysis this paper develops and puts forward five principles that follow from the Human Development approach to debt sustainability and relies on a review of more than forty-three Debt Sustainability Assessments carried out under the Framework since its adoption.

Stimulating South-South Cooperation

Likani Lebani 11/20/07

The three southern economic giants (India, Brazil, South Africa) have in the recent past called for a more effective framework for south-south cooperation that straddles both economic and political ties. This paper provides a broad analysis of trade patterns between the three countries and finds that overall trade patterns fluctuate over time and are largely concentrated in resource based and low technology products. Given the link between high technology activities and competitive advantage, the challenge for the three countries is to further invest in research and development activities and enhance technological capabilities.

Investing in Climate Change

Mark Fulton 11/15/07

Across the global economy, business opportunities are widespread in the climate change space. Companies and investors are quickly realizing that climate change is not merely a social, political or moral issue -- it is an economic and business issue as well. This is translating into a wave of investment and innovation.

Mandatory Disclosure of the Source and Origin of Biological Resources and Associated Traditional Knowledge under the TRIPS Agreement

South Centre 11/06/07

One of the most critical multilateral processes for developing countries rich in biodiversity and traditional knowledge is the establishment of a disclosure requirement. The objective of this policy brief is to analyze the main elements of the disclosure requirement, the approaches of WTO member states and recommend a way forward.

Capital Flight and the Hollowing Out of the Philippine Economy in the Neoliberal Regime

Edsel L. Beja, Jr. 11/05/07

Capital flight is the movement of capital from a resource-scarce developing country to avoid social controls, and measured as net unrecorded capital outflow. In this paper, Beja argues that capital flight in the Philippines has accounted for significant amounts of lost resources, resulted in the hollowing out of the Philippine economy and, more important, was underpinned by neoliberal policies.

Sustainability Initiatives across Key Sectors

John Lash 10/31/07

The underlying purpose for this study is to identify the areas that have the biggest potential to make a real impact, from a combined economic and environmental perspective. With this in mind, sustainability initiatives industry-wide were mapped out and analyzed as to which areas deliver the most value throughout the entire product life cycle.

Global Imbalances and Developing Countries

Jan Joost Teunissen
Forum on Debt and Development

The abrupt unwinding of global imbalances is a major risk for the world economy; it affects countries across the globe, but is particularly harmful to developing countries. This volume on global imbalances includes an unorthodox, long-term view, an in-depth look at role of the IMF, and discussion about reforming the international monetary and financial system. It pays special attention to Africa and East Asia.

Imposing Misery

Center for Reproductive Rights 09/26/07

In 2000, the mayor of Manila issued an Executive Order that bans city health centers and hospitals from providing contraception to women in need reproductive health care. A new report from Likhaan, ReproCen, and the Center for Reproductive Rights documents the impact on women's health.

M-PESA: Mobile Money for the "Unbanked"

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 08/03/07

Kenya's largest mobile network operator recently launched an innovative payment service for the unbanked. It's called M-PESA, combining the "M" from mobile with the Swahili word for cash. Together these technologies are helping spread microfinance and financial services to the poor.

China's Vulnerable Brand

Devin T. Stewart 07/30/07

Devin Stewart comments on the role of nontraditional foreign policy tools in this era of globalization and China's potential use of soft power.

China's More Responsible Future

Devin T. Stewart 07/30/07

Devin Stewart describes four trends that make him hopeful about the way China might wield its growing influence in the future.

Alternative Leadership Still Requires Ethics

Devin T. Stewart 07/06/07

In response to Naazneen Barma, Ely Ratner and Steven Weber's article in the July/August issue of The National Interest, "A World Without the West," Devin Stewart offers his thoughts on why we are not headed toward a world divided into two -- the West and the rest -- in the near future.

Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 06/28/07

Openness, facilitated by the Internet, is challenging the conventional closed model of intellectual property, leading to dramatic changes in the very process of innovation. Elliot Maxwell argues that in order for intellectual property law to stimulate innovation for the benefit of society it must balance the interests of first creators and follow-on creators.

Prizing Open the Profit-Making World

Richard Calland 06/12/07

Transparency is now a generally accepted norm for the democratic state. The focus on the public sector, however, leaves out large, and growing, amounts of relevant and important information held by private entities. This chapter explains corporate secrecy and the trend toward disclosure of environmental, labor, and other information in the CSR context.

Human Rights Challenges Facing Abbott Laboratories: Risks and Recommendations

Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility, Business & Human Rights Resource Centre 05/31/07

Lisa Sachs of the Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility says pharmaceutical companies depend on the social contract to finance R&D and to protect intellectual property. In return, they must take creative, wide-ranging steps to increase access to medicines and help protect the universal right to health, or else face business and reputational risks.

U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Public Health Report Card

Center for Policy Analysis on Trade and Health 05/31/07

Ellen Shaffer and Joe Brenner of the Center for Policy Analysis on Trade and Health critique the public health provisions of the Korea-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. They look specifically at access to affordable medicines, alcohol and tobacco control, democratic participation, protection of vital services, health sovereignty, and sustainable economic development.

The Big Idea: Prizes to Stimulate R&D for New Medicines


By James Love and Tim Hubbard. Reforming the way we pay for R&D on new medicines involves a simple but powerful idea. Rather than give drug developers the exclusive rights to sell products, the government would award innovators money: large monetary "prizes" tied to the actual impact of the invention on improvements in health care outcomes.

Patents, Compulsory License and Access to Medicines: Some Recent Experiences

Martin Khor
Third World Network

Access to medicines has emerged as a major public health issue, especially with the impact of patents on the prices of drugs. Developing countries can take advantage of flexibilities in the WTO Trade-related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, such as compulsory licensing. To do so they must now establish appropriate provisions in their national patent legislation.

The Stuff of Legends

Marcus Noland 05/05/07

Marcus Noland and J. Brooks Spector discuss on how the impact of diamond mining on economic growth and development – especially in Africa – is attracting considerable international attention. This is occurring in the context of three years of global experience with the Kimberley Process Certification System (KPCS), designed to monitor and regulate the worldwide sales of rough diamonds.

Mitigation of Climate Change


Summary for Policymakers of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 4th Report. The authors use the criteria of environmental effectiveness, cost effectiveness, distributional effects, including equity, and institutional feasibility to evaluate climate policies.

Property Rights and the Resource Curse (SERIES)

Leif Wenar 04/29/07

Read the collected Property Rights and the Resource Curse series in which Leif Wenar describes two enforcement mechanisms for sanctioning those who buy resources from the worst regimes: litigation in rich-country courts against the international corporations that transport the stolen goods, and an anti-theft trade policy that enables rich countries to penalize states that buy resources from disqualified regimes.

The Emissions Game


This CLSA Blue Book report gives a detailed account of emissions trading schemes and their potential for environmental mitigation and profit generation. The authors cover the U.S. Acid Rain Program, the Kyoto Protocol and its Clean Development Mechanism, the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme, climate exchanges, China's pilot programs, and the possibility of linking up these disparate systems.

When the Land Tells a Story

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization

In discussing the technology used in Pingree forest case, Randall B. Kemp and Sanjeev Khagram discuss how the technology used, especially the three levels of monitoring that they distinguish, could be applied in a very different set of contexts.

Corruption in the Water Sector


The global water crisis is primarily a crisis of governance, and corruption affects the governance of water by affecting who gets what water when, where and how. Corruption drains the water sector by misappropriating water management resources and hindering the attainment of the MDG targets for water supply and sanitation. The World Bank suggests that 20 to 40 percent of water sector finances are being lost to dishonest and corrupt practices. The costs of corruption are disproportionately borne by the poor and by the environment.

Trading Away Our Oceans

Greenpeace 04/05/07

In this paper, Greenpeace draws on published studies by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the European Union and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to show that further liberalization of trade in fish and fish products, particularly through the reduction/ elimination of tariffs, will only bring lasting economic benefits to a handful of developed, fish-exporting countries that have relatively well-established domestic fisheries management regimes.

Conservation via Satellite

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 04/01/07

In his article, Levitt suggests that today, more than a century after Theodore Roosevelt famously championed land and habitat conservation, the oversight and monitoring of protected lands in both developing and developed nations around the world remains a costly, difficult, and sometimes dangerous task.

Disaster via Airmail

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 04/01/07

In this paper, Patrick Lagadec, Erwann O. Michel-Kerjan, and Ryan N. Ellis focus on the new landscape of risks we all face today and on how strategic partnerships can be developed at the senior-executive level, domestically and internationally, to better prepare organizations to face such risks.

World Trade and the Regeneration of Agriculture

Heinrich Böll Stiftung 04/01/07

This paper looks at the relationship between world trade and industrial agriculture, and investigates trade rules’ possible role in the ecological regeneration of agriculture.

China’s Innovation Challenge and the Remaking of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 04/01/07

Richard P. Suttmeier, Cong Cao, and Denis Fred Simon examine the efforts of China’s premier academic institution, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), to remake itself through the implementation of an ambitious program of reform, the “Knowledge Innovation Program.”

Promoting Local Innovation as a Development Strategy

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 04/01/07

Graham Dutfield believes that Anil Gupta’s work, as presented in the same issue of Innovations, is a welcome challenge to the usual assumptions that innovation is by definition “modern,” and that people in developing countries, especially in rural areas, are not innovative and possess little knowledge of use to anyone else.

From Sink to Source

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 04/01/07

Anil K. Gupta describes the sources of creation of The Bee Network in India, as mechanism for documenting indigenous innovation.

Exploring the Linkages Between Agricultural Exports and Sustainable Development

Heinrich Böll Stiftung 04/01/07

This discussion paper analyzes the potential role of exports for economic growth, poverty reduction and fair and sustainable development. It concludes with some recommendations on criteria how exports should be designed in order to maximize their contribution to sustainable development.

Making Healthcare Affordable for All: A Proposed Model for Transferring Technology

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 04/01/07

In this commentary V. Kasturi Rangan reflects on what could have happened for cataract surgery in India had not an innovator like Aurolab emerged, as well as the implications that worldwide intellectual property could have on its development.

Making Sight Affordable (Part I)

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 04/01/07

Mahad Ibrahim, Aman Bhandari, Jaspal S. Sandhu, and P. Balakrishnan focus on Aurolab, the manufacturing arm of Aravind, which has developed critical eye care technologies for the Aravind hospitals. A subsequent case in Innovations will describe the development of the Aravind hospital system itself.

Global Climate and Health

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 04/01/07

Rita R. Colwell argues that understanding and modeling the role of climate change in the spread of infectious diseases is paramount to a holistic understanding of the consequences of global climate change and, certainly, for policies addressing societal needs related to global climate change.

The Process of Social Innovation

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 04/01/07

Geoff Mulgan provides a summary of his findings about the processes of social innovation and it outlines the frameworks we have developed for understanding how to accelerate social innovation and how to improve the chances of new ideas succeeding.

The Next Innovation Revolution

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 04/01/07

James Turner gives an historical account on what he calls innovation revolutions, arguing that they emerge when nations feel threatened.

Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Innovations For Primary Health Care in Developing Countries

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 04/01/07

In this paper, Frank Tanser reviews work that he has done examining the uses of GIS for understanding health care services and needs in a rural health District in South Africa, and puts those findings in the larger context of how GIS is now being used for management of health services in developing countries, especially those in Africa.

Genome and Nation

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 04/01/07

In this article, David E. Winickoff argues that generating the next round of genetic discoveries will require a large number of "health information altruists" to supply health and DNA data and DNA. He cites the Icelandic government’s ability to construct a "national genomic databank," in collaboration with deCODE Genetics Inc., as an example of the public's altruism.

Tools for Compliance in a Networked World (Case Discussion: RENCTAS)

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 04/01/07

Jerry Mechling discusses Dener Giovanni's story about RENCTAS that appeared in the previous issue of Innovations journal.

Taking Stock of Business and Human Rights: Policies and Practices

Christine Bader, David M. Schilling, Joanne Bauer, Frank Mantero
Workshops for Ethics in Business, Business & Human Rights Resource Centre, Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility

Rapporteur's summary of Taking Stock of Business and Human Rights: Policies and Practices.

The Energy Innovation Imperative

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 03/15/07

John P. Holdren discusses the need for accelerated energy innovation to meet the economic, environmental, and security aims of the 21st century. A response from Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman is included.

Developing Index-Based Insurance for Agriculture in Developing Countries

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Bank 03/13/07

Index-based insurance products for agriculture represent an attractive alternative for managing weather risk. Pilot programs conducted in several developing countries have proven the feasibility and affordability of such products. This paper presents the main lessons from these pilot programs, and examines the prospects for extension and scaling up of index-based weather insurance products in developing economies to promote sustainable development.

Investor Suffrage Movement (Full Article)

Glyn Holton 03/08/07

Financial consultant Glyn Holton proposes a unique scheme for democratizing capitalism through the use of proxy exchanges that allow shareholders to conveniently secure, transfer, aggregate, and exercise their voting rights.

A Fair Farm Bill for the World's Hungry

Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy 03/01/07

This brief suggests how the 2007 U.S. Farm Bill could make food aid more efficient and stop pushing farmers in poor countries off the land.

A Fair Farm Bill for Renewable Energy

Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy 03/01/07

This briefs suggests how the Farm Bill should support the next generation of sustainable energy crops and strengthen local ownership.

A Fair Farm Bill for the World

Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy 03/01/07

This brief suggests how and why the Farm Bill's influence over world policies is colossal — the WTO, food aid, market concentration and public health may all change.

A Fair Farm Bill for America

Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy 03/01/07

This brief describes how Americans are effected every day by the Farm Bill -- from energy and health to the environment, labor and hunger -- and it presents recommendations for a bill that would constitute real reform.

Understanding Low-Wage Work in the United States

Shawn Fremstad, Margy Waller
Inclusion: Independent, Progressive, New, Center for Economic and Policy Research

The next decade could be one of considerable progress for improving low-wage jobs. In November 2006, voters in six states boosted state minimum wages, and voters in even more states elected candidates who pledged to increase the federal minimum wage and take steps to improve the economy for everyone. Yet relatively little agreement exists about the policies (beyond raising the minimum wage) that can improve these jobs, even among experts studying low-wage work. In this report, the Mobility Agenda staff defines low-wage work and provides a description of the low-wage labor market. It also examines the extent to which opportunity exists for workers to move out of the low-wage labor market and into better-paying jobs.

Governance and Anti-Corruption reforms in Developing Countries: Policies, Evidence and Ways Forward

International institutions and in particular the World Bank and the IMF are rightly giving a great deal of attention to issues of governance and institutions in developing countries, and they are particularly concerned with corruption. There is strong evidence that governance and institutions matter in accelerating development and in reducing poverty in developing countries. However, the evidence strongly suggests that there is no common set of institutions that all successful developing countries have shared. More worrying is the observation that governance and institutions in the most successful developing countries have often been starkly at variance with the good governance model that international agencies are committed to. Even the most successful developing countries have suffered from significant corruption and other governance failures during the early stages of their development. However, they did have significant governance capacities that allowed states to ensure that the conditions for rapid growth and sustained political legitimacy of the state were maintained.

What Tanzania's Coffee Farmers Can Teach The World: A Performance-Based Look At The Fair Trade-Free Trade Debate

Questions remain about the effectiveness of fair trade, especially in comparison with free trade approaches to development. Both strategies seek to benefit smallholder farmers in lower-income countries, who are vulnerable to declining and fluctuating commodity prices and rising production costs. This study examines two prominent market-based interventions, Fairtrade certification and TechnoServe business development, as they are implemented at two coffee producer organizations in Tanzania.

Diamonds are a Rebel's Best Friend

By Ola Olsson, The purpose of this article is to analyse the linkages between the production of rough diamonds and economic development on a macro and micro level.

The Ecological Footprint

Edward O. Wilson
International Development Research Centre

The noted biologist and environmental activist E.O. Wilson's acceptance of the 2000 Kistler Prize before the Foundation for the Future.

The Economics of Illegal Logging and Associated Trade

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 02/20/07

OECD Background Paper, By Arnoldo Contreras-Hermosilla, Richard Doornbosch, and Michael Lodge. This paper discusses various supply- and demand-side strategies for combating illegal logging, including international trade measures such as a global multilateral licensing scheme for wood products.

Let Their People Come: Breaking the Gridlock on Global Labor Mobility

Center for Global Development 02/13/07

In an increasingly liberalized and integrated global economy, with more open capital and goods and services markets, the highly restricted and heavily regulated markets for global labor are an oddity. In this controversial book, CGD non-resident fellow Lant Pritchett examines the potentials and perils of greater cross-border mobility of unskilled labor -- within poor world regions and between poor and rich countries. Pritchett argues that irresistible demographic forces for greater international labor mobility are being checked by immovable anti-immigration ideas of rich-country citizens.

CSR and Developing Countries: What scope for government action?

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, International Institute for Environment and Development, United Nations Development Program 02/13/07

Public policy and public sector actors in middle and low-income countries are increasingly confronted with issues related to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). This paper presents the range of opportunities that exist for them to mitigate negative impacts of CSR but also to harness its potential positive benefits for public policy. Government involvement is illustrated through examples of policy instruments and programmes promoting CSR in developing countries.

The Social Benefits and Economic Costs of Taxation

Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives 02/12/07

Findings from this study show that high-tax countries have been more successful in achieving their social objectives than low-tax countries. Interestingly, they have done so with no economic penalty.

Urban Poverty and Development in the 21st Century

Oxfam International 02/12/07

In ten years’ time, more people will be living in cities than ever before in human history. Of the three billion urban residents of the world today, one billion live in slums, vulnerable to disease, violence and social, political and economic exclusion. Although there are good examples of responses to urban poverty, cities continue to grow, and to grow poorer.

Low cost drip irrigation as a poverty reduction tool

Global Development Network 01/30/07

IDE India has developed an affordable micro-drip irrigation technology that makes efficient and high yield irrigation accessible to small land holders by bringing the price down by 60 to 80 percent, assuring that even small-scale farmers in arid regions of India can use the scarce water resources available to get out of poverty and meet their family's basic economic and nutritional needs.

Meeting Global Challenges: International Cooperation in the National Interest


This report of the International Task Force on Global Public Goods highlights the relevance of such goods to ethical policies in health, environment, trade stability, international peace, and accountable governance.

Biofuels production, trade and sustainable development: emerging issues

International Institute for Environment and Development 01/30/07

The threat of global warming, high oil prices and concerns about energy security have all contributed to a renewed global interest in biofuels as an alternative to oil for transport. This interest is reflected in the rapid expansion of biofuel markets. But what are the implications of this expansion for sustainable development? This paper seeks to provide a preliminary identification of the main sustainable development issues involved in the debate around production and trade of biofuels.

Beyond Scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis

United Nations Development Program 01/29/07

The United Nations Development Programme's 2006 Human Development Report focuses on the world's most precious natural resource: fresh, potable water. Millions each day go without the water they need. The report indicates that the scarcity at the heart of the global water crisis is rooted in power, poverty, and inequality, not in physical availability. Crafting intelligent policies to deliver this essential service depends on recognizing water's centrality in health, justice, and economic development.

The Cultural Industries in CARICOM: Trade and Development Challenges

Keith Nurse, Michele Reis 01/26/07

The cultural and creative industries are an area of the global economy in which the Caribbean region enjoys some comparative, if not competitive, advantage in production. This is an aspect of the new global economy that the region has participated in with relatively low levels of investment. There is also a window of opportunity for the region given the growth in the global cultural industries, the increasing commercialization of the arts in the burgeoning digital and knowledge economy, and the widening acceptance of alternative genres and world cultures.

OPEN ACCESS: Lowering the costs of international bandwidth in Africa

Association for Progressive Communications 01/23/07

Bandwidth is the life-blood of the world’s knowledge economy, but it is scarcest where it is most needed—in the developing nations of Africa which require low-cost communications to accelerate their socioeconomic development. Few schools, libraries, universities and research centres on the continent have any internet access. For those that can afford it, their costs are usually thousands of times higher than for their counterparts in the developed world. Unless interventions are made to reduce the cost of broadband in Africa, the continent will be prevented from tapping its latent potential and will fall further behind the rest of the world.

The World Distribution of Household Wealth

World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) 01/23/07

Comprehensive study of personal wealth reports that the richest 1% of adults alone owned 40% of global assets in the year 2000.

Global Integrity Index 2006

Global Integrity 01/23/07

The Global Integrity Index assesses the existence and effectiveness of anti-corruption mechanisms that promote public integrity. More than 290 discrete Integrity Indicators generate the Integrity Index and are organized into six key categories and twenty three sub-categories. Prepared by a lead researcher in the country and then blindly reviewed by additional in-country and external experts, the Integrity Indicators not only assess the existence of laws, regulations, and institutions designed to curb corruption but also their implementation, as well as the access that average citizens have to those mechanisms.

Payments for Progress: A Hands-Off Approach to Foreign Aid

Nancy Birdsall
Center for Global Development

Are Shorter Work Hours Good for the Environment?

David Rosnick, Mark Weisbrot
Center for Economic and Policy Research

If Europe were to adopt U.S. practices and increase annual work hours to American levels, they could consume some 30 percent more energy than they do at present. Not only could that impact fuel prices worldwide, but the resulting carbon emissions would make it far more difficult for the EU to meet its commitments to the Kyoto Protocol.

Extraterritorial Jurisdiction as a Tool for Improving the Human Rights Accountability of Transnational Corporations

Business & Human Rights Resource Centre 01/03/07

By Professor Olivier de Schutter. This paper examines under which conditions States may -- or should -– exercise extraterritorial jurisdiction in order to improve the accountability of transnational corporations domiciled under their jurisdiction for human rights abuses they commit overseas. The hypothesis is that, where the host State on the territory of which the transnational corporation has invested is unwilling or unable to react to such abuses, in particular by providing remedies to victims, the home State may have an important role to play in order to ensure that corporate abuses are not left unpunished. This report addresses whether, in such cases, the home State has an obligation to exercise extraterritorial jurisdiction, and whether, even in the absence of such an obligation, it may do so, and if so, under which conditions and according to which tools.

Yuan Revaluation Debate

Devin T. Stewart
Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs

Asia’s growth is impacting global financial relations, but the debate about the Chinese currency, like that about the Japanese yen two decades ago, may be oversimplified. The battle over revaluing the yuan has big implications for the U.S. economy, U.S.-China relations, and the U.S.’s global leadership role. The highly integrated nature of the U.S. and Chinese economies – and a growing portion of the world for that matter – makes predicting the effect of a revaluation difficult. Some analysts believe that a revaluation would help cool down the Chinese economy, increase the buying power of the Chinese consumer, allow Southeast Asian nations to compete with China in areas such as textiles, and reduce China’s overall trade surplus. Others believe that revaluation would reduce China’s growth rate, increase the number of China’s bad loans, increase unemployment, reward currency speculators, and set into motion a deflationary an recessionary spiral similar to that of Japan in the 1990s.

Korea at Center of Major Shift

Devin T. Stewart
Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs

The North Korean nuclear test comes as the alliance between the U.S. and South Korea grows more tenuous. North Korea’s nuclear test in October 2006, long threatened, nonetheless came as a shock. While the nuclear test injected new uncertainty into the prospects for regional cooperation in Northeast Asia, North Korea subsequently announced its intention to rejoin the six-party talks that bring together North and South Korea, the U.S., Japan, China and Russia to discuss North Korea’s nuclear weapons capability. It is very possible that the six-party talks could evolve into the de facto instrument for managing the process of the major transition in Northeast Asia.

Fairness in International Trade

Junji Nakagawa

Formally, trade negotiations under the WTO are conducted in a fairly symmetric manner. Decisions of the Ministerial Conference and the General Council shall be taken by a majority of the votes cast. However, the decisions are in practice made by consensus since the GATT era, and few decisions have ever been taken by a majority vote. Decision-making by consensus may be democratic in itself, as it presupposes respect of minority opinions. However, many developing-country Members feel marginalized within the WTO decision-making process.

Noboru Maruyama Speech at 2006 Uehiro-Carnegie-Oxford Workshop


Uehiro Foundation general secretary Noboru Maruyama makes closing remarks at the 2006 Uehiro-Carnegie-Oxford Workshop.

The China Factor in African Ethics and Human Rights

David Shinn 12/08/06

Former Ambassador to Ethiopia David Shinn discusses the ethics of China's growing investment in Africa. He specifically covers resource extraction, human rights, arms trade, environmental policy, textiles, Darfur, and the cultural factors influencing trade between China and Africa.

Fairness, Export Subsidies, and the Fair Trade Movement

Mathias Risse 12/07/06

For years, agricultural subsidies in the United States, the European Union, and Japan have been summoned for debate. Their existence is widely regarded as indicating the unwillingness of these countries to design the trading system for the benefit of the poor.

Ethical Entrepreneurship and Fair Trade

Due to several recent scandals, Business Ethics is now firmly embraced. Whereas in the 1980s and early 1990s there were serious doubts expressed about combining ethics and business, the link now seems to have become self-evident. Fundamental questions about the tensions between business and ethics however continue to receive little attention.

Fair Trade: Three Key Challenges for Reaching The Mainstream

After nearly 20 years of work by activists, fair trade, a movement establishing alternative trading organizations to ensure minimal returns, safe working conditions, and environmentally sustainable production, now gaining steam, with increasing awareness and availability across a variety of products.

Alternative Measures of Currency and Asset Substitution: The Case of Turkey


This paper attempts to develop theoretically consistent distinct measures of asset and currency substitution, taking into account the different degrees of liquidity provided by alternative monetary assets. The measures are then calculated for the case of Turkey and the relevance of the asset and currency substitution hypotheses as well as the hysteresis hypothesis are tested in a cointegrated VAR framework. Empirical results suggest a long run relation between the domestic-foreign inflation differential and the currency substitution ratio as well as a long run relation between the gross rate of return on foreign currency deposits and the asset substitution ratio. There is also evidence of a positive long run relation between the gross rate of return on T-Bills and the asset substitution ratio. Finally although there is no econometric evidence of irreversibility in asset substitution, the rate of depreciation of YTL is found to be a significant ratchet for currency substitution.

The Political Economy of Corporate Responsibility in India

UN Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) 11/15/06

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is on the rise all over the world, and India is no exception. The history of corporate paternalism has played an important part in shaping community expectations and CSR practices in India. Civil society, consumers and other actors have increased the pressure on companies to adhere to social and environmental standards, and this new "civil regulatory" environment has had impacts on business in India. This paper considers corporate environmental and social behaviour in India, both in the past and the present, in an attempt to better understand the actual impact of CSR.

Foreign Portfolio Investment, Stock Market and Economic Development: A Case Study of India

Parthapratim Pal 11/13/06

The objective of this study is to examine the impact of Foreign Portfolio Investment on India’s economy and industry. As FPI essentially interacts with the real economy via the stock market, the effect of stock market on the country’s economic development will also be examined.

The Complementarity between Innovation and Competences in Developing Countries

Watu Wamae 11/13/06

This paper proposes an analysis of the importance of supporting technical competence building with domestic innovation in developing countries. Preliminary findings of the analysis indicate that the complementarity between domestic innovative activities and technical competence building plays a significant role in the technological dynamism of developing countries.

Competitive diversification in resource abundant countries: Argentina after the collapse of the convertibility regime

Leandro Serino 11/13/06

We develop a Scandinavian version of the dependent economy model and discuss the complex task of economic diversification in resource abundant countries. After showing the constraining role of resource abundance for tradable diversification, we discuss the effects of macroeconomic diversification policies, especially nominal devaluations.

Context matters: how state forms and reforms influence water provision in Latin America

LaDawn Haglund 11/09/06

Our findings indicate that successes and failures of water sector reform depend on preexisting state structures and social relations in determinate ways. We find that the state is not a perverse organization per se: when there is participation, respect for the public sphere, and financial and technical capacity and autonomy, public entities can be quite successful.

Small Island Developing States: Trade Patterns, Determinants and Performance

Sawkut Rojid 11/09/06

In this study, we are concerned with trade patterns and performances of Small Island Developing States (SIDS). Understanding the trade patterns of SIDS is very important in devising trade-oriented strategies that will promote their sustainable development.

Globalisation and Economic Development: Policy Lessons for Estonia

Marek Tiits 11/09/06

By Marek Tiits, Rainer Kattel & Tarmo Kalvet. Being now a member of the European Union, Estonia has found itself in a totally different economic policy environment where from the point of view of the desired economic convergence Estonia’s actual specialisation in the common market and the implementation of a development strategy supporting the same will acquire a much more important role than the earlier relatively technical transposition of the acquis communitaire.

Free & Open Source Software for Microfinance: Increasing Efficiency and Extending Benefits to the Poor

Britta Augsburg 11/09/06

This paper investigates the potential of open source software to increase the impact of microfinance (MF) especially for the very poor and suggest a framework for econometric evaluation of such intervention.

Who Better Targets the Poor?

Taruna Shalini Ramessur-Seenarain 11/08/06

Poverty has a spatial component. There are not only impoverished people, but also impoverished places, such as slums and marginalised farming areas. According to Dreze and Sen (1989), one of the strategies to alleviate poverty, involves improving the access to consumption of the poor in the short term through income redistribution. Recently there has been a lot of debate over the issue of who - the central government or the federal/local government - should redistribute income in order to better reach the poor. The conventional theory of fiscal federalism suggests that redistribution activities should be performed by the central government, because otherwise competition of regional governments, enforced by mobility and migration of private households, may lead to an erosion of the social support system. However sceptics argue that decentralized redistribution might be more efficient since redistribution is closer to citizens’ preferences.

Reversing the Brain Drain in Trinidad and Tobago: Can South American Migrants Offer A Viable Solution?

Michele Reis 11/08/06

The paper makes a case for looking at Venezuelan/South American immigrants as one possible method in assisting in redressing the imbalance of outflows of intellectual human capital in Trinidad by utilising the skills of these South American migrants. The paper therefore analyses Venezuelan emigration to Trinidad from a human development perspective. The study is timely and is meant to fill a gap where currently very little data are available. The paper concludes by making suggestions with respect to areas of technical cooperation to maximise the benefits of skilled Venezuelans.

Bilateral Investment Treaties

Biplove Choudhary 11/08/06

This paper would attempt to understand the development concerns with reference to standard BIT provisions with special reference to the explosion in investment arbitration and dispute settlement systems in recent years.

Prudential Regulation and Safety Net: Recent Transformations in Brazil


This paper examines the contributions that the original Basel Accord took and that Basel II might make toward changing the banking regulation framework in Brazil.

Internationalization of Transnational Corporations' Research and Development: Analysis of the Insertion of Asian and Latin American Affiliates

Celio Hiratuka 11/08/06

The aim of this paper is to analyze the internationalization of research and development activities carried out by transnational corporations. Based on information about U.S. transnational corporations, provided by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, this paper seeks to assess how such corporations allocate their R&D resources abroad, comparing the role of Asia and Latin America affiliates.

Are There Gender-Separate Education Effects on Growth?

Boopen Seetanah 11/08/06

This paper investigates the empirical link between gender separate education and economic progress for the case of the small island developing state of Mauritius. It allows for dynamic and feedback effects in the education-growth link by using a multivariate dynamic estimation technique, namely a difference vector autoregressive framework for the period 1960-2000. Results from the analysis suggest that both female and male education are important ingredients in explaining growth. Moreover they are shown to have nearly the same productivity level. Further analysis suggests that bi-causality exist between female/male education and economic growth. Indirect effects via capital stock accumulation, a proxy for investment, are also reported.

Timing the Mexican 1994-95 financial crisis using a Markov switching approach

Moritz Alberto Cruz 11/08/06

It is increasingly asserted that recent financial crises have been driven by changes in market sentiment, the latter stemming from alterations in so-called fundamentals. There are, however, few studies aimed at identifying empirically whether this is true. Applying a Markov switching autoregressive model and using the broad money-to-international reserves ratio as the variable that captures market confidence, this paper times the start and the end of Mexico’s 1994-95 financial crisis. The estimated probabilities indicate that financial panic started since November 1993 and that it ended in May 1995. It is established that the beginning and end of the crisis is associated with a change in private agents’ confidence and not to ex post events, such as the abandonment of the exchange rate or the recovery of the economy led by export growth. The results also indicate that in order to recover agents’ confidence, the government had to reinforce its strategy of financial liberalisation. This placed strong limitations on the authorities’ room for manoeuvre in setting macroeconomic policy.

Balance of Payments Constraints in a Developing Economy: A heterodox theoretical approach

Esther Dweck 11/07/06

In this article, we present a heterodox theoretical framework to discuss some characteristics of developing countries, especially those related to the persistence of balance of payment constraints. The main purpose is to identify characteristics that combined may create a structural vicious circle imposing an external constraint; a central theme for development economists of the first generation, mainly Prebisch.

Explaining Botswana's Growth: With a comparison to Chile

Fiona Tregenna 11/07/06

An analysis of Botswana's paradoxically high growth rates and poor development record.

The impact of international capital flows on the South Africa economy since the end of apartheid


This paper will consider international capital flows into and out of South Africa during the post-apartheid era. It will examine the types of flows that have been entering the country and how they are absorbed into the economy.

Manufacturing Industry and Economic Growth in Latin America: A Kaldorian Approach

Gilberto Libanio 11/07/06

This paper discusses the importance of manufacturing industry for the growth trajectories of developing countries from a Kaldorian perspective, with particular emphasis on the case of Latin America.

Development Assistance and Research Capacity Strengthening: The Commissioning of Health Social Science Research in East Africa

Keith Nurse
Institute for International Relations, University of the West Indies

Research capacity strengthening (RCS) in health social science research is considered a key imperative to achieve health equity. Recent evidence suggests that the knowledge gap between the North and the South, particularly low income developing countries, is growing ever wider in spite of the prominence capacity development and RCS enjoy in development assistance policy.

Stern Review Report on the Economics of Climate Change

Nicholas Stern 11/02/06

Major report from the UK Treasury on how economies can be green and grow at the same time. The report covers economics, ethics and climate change, policy responses for mitigation, implications of climate change for development, accelerating technological innovation, the challenges of international collective action, and many other issues including the economics of adaptation.

Rising Above The Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future


In a world where advanced knowledge is widespread and low-cost labor is readily available, U.S. advantages in the marketplace and in science and technology have begun to erode. A comprehensive and coordinated federal effort is urgently needed to bolster U.S. competitiveness and pre-eminence in these areas.

External Debt Nationalization a Major Tendency on Brazilian External Debt in the Twentieth Century: The Shifting Character of the State During Debt Crisis

Luiz Niemeyer 10/18/06

This paper discusses the shifting character of the Brazilian State in several major debt crises throughout this century, including its more recent one in that starts in 1999 and is considered to have ended in 2005 when Brazil repaid in advance its debt to the IMF.

The Determinants of Pharmaceutical Research and Development Investments

Authors Abdulkadir Civan and Michael T. Maloney find that economic harm motivates the distribution of drug development across diseases, but it is economic harm in the United States alone that matters—meaning that pharmaceutical companies are less motivated to work on products that affect health in developing countries.

Exchange Rates, Growth and Inflation

Nelson H. Barbosa Filho 10/14/06

This paper analyzes the operation of the balance-of-payments (BoP) constraint on developing economies, with a special emphasis to the link between inflation targets, real-exchange-rate dynamics and growth in the short and in the long run.

Microfinance as Business

Center for Global Development 10/13/06

CGD research fellow David Roodman and Uzma Qureshi analyze microfinance institutions (MFIs) as businesses, asking how some succeed in covering costs, earning returns, attracting capital, and scaling up. We draw on existing literature and interviews with industry players and academics. Key microfinance business challenges include building volume, keeping loan repayment rates high, retaining customers, and minimizing scope for fraud. Since the 1970s, microfinance innovators have developed clever solutions to these problems. Some have built huge organizations that serve thousands or millions of clients and have demonstrated an impressive capacity for change—in countries, to boot, with weak infrastructure and human capital. The individual innovations have spread both through a Darwinian process of selection and through cultural diffusion. We examine three kinds of determinants of commercial success: product design, management, and environmental factors such as regulation.

Camels and Camel Milk

Camel milk: What possible importance can camel milk have in the year 1981 in a world beset with a multitude of problems? The answer to this is clear when we consider that one of the biggest problems confronting mankind today is malnourishment. Camel milk can certainly play a far more important role in the prevention of malnutrition than it does today. Growing and raising foodstuffs for the rapidly increasing human population is especially precarious in the hot and arid zones of the world - the very areas where the camel is one of the few animals not only to survive, but also to benefit man.

The Next Thing: Camel Milk


The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) sees bright prospects for camel dairy products, which could not only provide more food to people in arid and semi-arid areas, but also give nomadic herders a rich source of income.

Small Is Beautiful

Fatma Gul Unal 10/02/06

This paper examines the relationship between farm size and yield per acre in rural Turkey.

Ten Reasons Why the Rockefeller and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundations' Alliance for Another Green Revolution Will Not Solve the Problems of Poverty and Hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa


Food First Policy Brief No. 12: A ten point critique of how the intended second 'green revolution' for Africa hasn't learned lessons from the past and will likely worsen

China's New-Rich and Global Responsibility

Joshua Eisenman, Devin T. Stewart
The Globalist

China's authorities have recently come under fire by foreign governments and human rights groups. Surprisingly, the criticism is not for Beijing's maltreatment of its own citizens, but rather for Chinese business practices in other countries. Joshua Eisenman and Devin Stewart delve into the foreign policy issues arising from China’s newfound wealth.

Tackling Corruption in the Water and Sanitation Sector in Africa

Water Integrity Network

ABSTRACT: For the past three decades a substantial number of governments, donors and NGOs have focused efforts on a range of institutional, financial, technical and social interventions aimed at bringing about much-needed improvements in the delivery of water and sanitation services in rural and urban areas of Africa.Yet the attainment of the water and sanitation MDGs in Africa is unlikely in the majority of African countries—the stability, investment and capacity needed to meet significant and growing demand is lacking. But even if additional finance was to become available, the unacceptable level of leakage of existing resources brings into question current processes and, perhaps, the wisdom of increasing resource flows to the sector.Much of the funding available in ministries, local governments, utilities and village administrations is being used by public office for private gain.

Shifting Paradigms of Thought and Power: Problems and the Possibilities

Alejandro Bendana

Trying to get policy makers to think differently about development presupposes one of two options: a) that attaining development with and through social justice is simply a question of adjusting present policies, or b) that policy changes are not enough, what is required is a shift in paradigm. And a shift in paradigm requires a shift in power. Ideas are shaped by politics, and not the other way around. The “Free Market” is a political statement, not an economic one. It is at the core of the dominant paradigm. We therefore must address the politics and the paradigm if we are to understand policy. The paradigm needs to be deconstructed as part and parcel of the construction of a new one.

Macroeconomic Policy, Inequality and Poverty Reduction in India and China

Jayati Ghosh, C. P. Chandrasekhar

It is now commonplace to regard China and India as the two economies in the developing world that are the “success stories” of globalisation, emerging into giant economies of the 21st century. The success is defined by the high and sustained rates of growth of aggregate and per capita national income; the absence of major financial crises that have characterised a number of other emerging markets; and substantial reduction in income poverty.

Crises and the Poor: A Template for Action

Nora Lustig and Michael Walton - The purpose of this note is to provide a template for areas of focus in the design of responses to a crisis. The following is intended as a preliminary checklist of areas for action, that will be worked on in the coming months.

Creating International Credit Rules and the Multilateral Agreement on Investment: What are the Alternatives?

Gerald Epstein

Elissa Braunstein and Gerald Epstein -  This new work includes a range of country-focused studies that propose central bank policies to promote growth, employment and poverty reduction, while also maintaining moderate inflation and a stable exchange rate. The project also includes thematic papers, including a study of the gender impacts of monetary policy, inflation and poverty.

In the Public Interest: Health, Education, and Water and Sanitation for All

Oxfam International 09/01/06

A new Oxfam and WaterAid report on essential public services and their role in human development.

Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreements

Sherman Katz, Devin T. Stewart 08/16/06

Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreements stand on four pillars: trade liberalization, regulatory convergence, economic precedents for the international system, and trade security.

Fighting Hunger and Poverty through Pilot Projects

The North-South Institute 08/01/06

This report provides an outline of progress on the airline ticket solidarity levy and the International Drug Purchase Facility (IDPF, also known as UNITAID), with reference to breaking drug patent protections for Least Developed Countries.

Linkages between Pro-poor Growth, Social Programmes, and Labour Market: The Recent Brazilian Experience

United Nations Development Program

This UNDP working paper analyzes the evolution of Brazilian social indicators based on per capita income, exploring links with adverse labour market performance and social policy change, with particular emphasis on the expansion of targeted cash transfers and on devising more pro-poor social security benefits.

Nixing the News: Iranian Internet Censorship

Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government 07/28/06

By Jackie Granick, This paper argues that censorship in Iran is aiding the use of new media, such as weblogs. Because of this the rift between the people and the government will widen, allowing the government apparatus to unify and exacerbating the current crises of affairs in the country.

New Media, New Publics: Reconfiguring the Public Sphere of Islam


By Jon W. Anderson, This paper examines the changing nature of media technology in the Islamic world and its effect on governance and social customs.

Bloggers vs. Mullahs: How the Internet Roils Iran


By Bill Berkeley, This paper equates the rise of the Iranian blogosphere with the Ayatollah Khomenei's use of audio-cassettes during the 1979 Islamic revolution.

The False Dilemma of the Sweatshop

Sanjay Reddy, Christian Barry 07/24/06

In 1910, Thomas Dawley, the US government inspector, recorded this testimony as part of his investigation of labour practices in the American south: “You people from the north do not know anything about the poor people of the south. A few of you have stumbled into our cotton-mill villages and have seen some of the conditions among the poor in them, think they are bad, but it is nothing to what you may see in the country.”

Energy Security in the 21st Century: A New National Strategy


In this report by leading energy and national security experts, a new, comprehensive energy security strategy is presented that will put the United States on a path toward energy independence while national, economic, and environmental security.

The New GM Revolution


By Charlie Furniss, In the developing world, dire predictions have proven unfounded, and GMOs are becoming increasingly popular with small-scale farms attracted by the increased yields and profits they offer.

The Arabs, Islam and Globalization


By Fauzi Najjar, This paper discusses the cultural implications of globalization for Islam as viewed by Muslims, in particular the Islamists.

Would A Cap on Gas Consumption Solve U.S. Energy Problems?

Martin Feldstein 06/07/06

By Martin Feldstein, Feldstein recommends a system of tradeable gasoline rights (TGRs) as a way of capping U.S. gasoline consumption, In his proposal, each adult would receive government distributed TGRs, which he or she could choose to use or trade.

Labor Standards and International Trade: A Proposal

Sanjay Reddy, Christian Barry 06/07/06

The authors argue that the commitment of poor countries to promote labor standards, and that of rich countries to provide additional trading opportunities and financial resources to poor countries that promote labor standards should both be incorporated into the single undertaking of all WTO members.

In Praise of the Maligned Sweatshop


Nicholas Kristof examines the role of low-wage factories such as those run by Nike in Namibia.

From Concept to Reality: On the present state of the debate on international taxes

Peter Wahl
Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, New York

By Peter Wahl, The author analyses the impact of globalization on the functioning of nation-state based parliamentary democracy and national taxation.

Global Responses to Global Threats: Sustainable Security for the 21st Century


By Chris Abbot, Paul Rogers and John Sloboda, This paper shows that international terrorism is actually a relatively minor threat when compared to other more serious global trends, and that current responses to those trends are likely to increase the risks of further terrorist attacks.

Trade on Human Terms: Transforming Trade for Human Development in Asia and the Pacific

United Nations Development Program 06/01/06

United Nations, Asia-Pacific Human Development Report 2006

From the Overview

How should the countries of Asia and the Pacific respond in a demanding new environment for international trade? Clearly, there can be no standard blueprint, especially for such a huge and diverse region. Nevertheless, there is a way of encompassing this diversity by viewing trade issues through a human development lens. The analysis in this Report suggests eight priorities that have a degree of general application:

1. Invest for Competitiveness
2. Adopt Strategic Trade Policies
3. Restore a Focus on Agriculture
4. Combat Jobless Growth
5. Prepare a New Tax Regime
6. Maintain Stable and Realistic Exchange Rates
7. Persist with Multilateralism
8. Cooperate with Neighbours

Innovative Sources of Finance after the Paris Conference

Frank Schroeder
Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, New York

By Frank Schroeder, The paper provides an analysis of new additional sources of finance for anti-hunger and anti-poverty initiatives and examines the political support for them.

Globalization of Disaster


By David Alexander, this paper highlights a paradox in global response to disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Namely, as worldwide involvement in the relief and mitigation of catastrophe deepens and becomes more complex, so the approach becomes more fragmentary in some respects, particularly those that relate to global security strategies, and more uniform in others, especially in terms of where the international political system directs its limited attention.

Combating Infectious Diseases in East Asia


Since the Asia-wide outbreak of the SARS virus in 2003, the threats from infectious diseases have become more severe. No sooner had the region begun to recover from the devastating impact of SARS than news about the rising incidence of avian influenza cases—on almost a daily basis and with an ever-expanding geographic reach—raised alarm about the potentially imminent outbreak of a pandemic of global proportions. In this era of globalization and regionalization, such infectious diseases have the capacity to detrimentally affect the security and well-being of all members of society and all aspects of the economy.

Introduction to the Inaugural Issue of Innovations Journal

Philip E. Auerswald, Iqbal Z. Quadir
Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization

Introduction to the inaugural issue of Innovations journal explaining the rationale and model of the publication.

The DOHA Round After Hong Kong: A Preliminary Evaluation of Progress Made at the Hong Kong Ministerial

Initiative for Policy Dialogue 03/14/06

Forecasts that trade ministers would be able to forge at least a facing saving deal in Hong Kong proved correct. But that doesn’t mean the agreement is good, either for the developing countries or the world trading system. At Doha in 2001, members of the World Trade Organization launched a new round of trade negotiations which promised to focus on the problems of the developing countries and redress some of the imbalances of the past. The new ‘Development Round’ would, in the words of the top US trade negotiator, Robert Zoellick, deliver “growth, development and prosperity”. However as the Doha Round agenda begins to take its final shape, it is now clear that the ‘development’ aspect of the round has come to refer almost exclusively to agriculture. This is, in our view, a missed opportunity to make progress on a broad set of issues which would deliver benefits to developing countries.

World Trading System and Development Concerns

Martin Khor,
Third World Network

This paper deals with trade policy and the world trading system from a development perspective.

Taking Animal Trafficking Out of the Shadows

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 03/10/06

By Dener Giovanni. Animal trafficking, the third largest illegal trade in the world after drugs and arms, is a US$20 billion business. Brazil is estimated to account for up to 15% of this illicit global trade.

Ending an Epidemic: The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Pioneers a Public-Private Partnership

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 03/10/06

By Seth Berkley. Since Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was identified in 1981, it has killed more than 25 million people and more than 40 million are infected today with HIV. Only a vaccine has any hope of ending this epidemic.

Income is Development: KickStart’s Pumps Help Kenyan Farmers Transition to a Cash Economy

Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 03/10/06

By Martin Fisher. Within less than a generation, poor families in Africa have been thrown from essentially a subsistence lifestyle into a primarily cash-based economy. Ability to earn an income is suddenly a paramount skill. Yet approaches to encouraging development continue to be based on the assumption that the primary need of people in poor places is something other than a way to make money—better healthcare, education, water, housing, and so forth. This is misguided. Providing these will not end poverty. In a cash economy, money is the primary means to securing other vital resources.

Ecology and Economics


By Stephen Farber, et. al.

The Linkages Between Open Services Markets and Technology Transfer

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 01/27/06

Services are the main drivers of economic growth in OECD countries and they are becoming increasingly innovative. This study analyses the role of open services markets in the transfer and diffusion of technology from developed countries to developing countries.

Interview with Noam Chomsky on Labor's Platform for the Americas and the World Social Forum 2006

Global Policy Network 01/26/06

This interview with Noam chomsky covers a wide range of topics relating to economics and economic history of the Americas.

After the WTO Hong Kong Ministerial Meeting: What Is at Stake?

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 01/18/06

By Ken Heydon. Charting the way ahead will require that trade policy be seen in a broader domestic context which recognises that market opening works best when it is backed by sound macroeconomic policies, flexible labour markets, a culture of competition and strong institutions. Through this lens, trade reform can be promoted as a necessary tool of growth and development rather than as a concession paid to others.

Fair Trade for All: How Trade Can Promote Development

Initiative for Policy Dialogue 01/05/06

How can the poorer countries of the world be helped to help themselves through freer, fairer trade?

Real Exchange Rate, Monetary Policy and Employment: Economic Development in a Garden of Forking Paths

Roberto Frenkel, Lance Taylor
Center for Economic Policy Analysis, New School University, Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad (CEDES)

An appropriate level of the real exchange rate (RER) can be a key support for growth, employment creation, and overall development of the “real economy,” but programming the RER is macroeconomically complicated. The coordination issues it raises must be addressed with due attention given to controlling inflation, reducing financial fragility and risk, and aiming toward full employment of available resources. Thus, managing the exchange rate necessarily encompasses monetary and expectational considerations. A key challenge is to provide enough degrees of freedom for the monetary authorities to carry through these tasks.

Winners and Losers: Impact of the Doha Round on Developing Countries

Sandra Polaski
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Sandra Polaski makes several critical innovations—notably, modeling unemployment in developing countries and separating agricultural labor markets from urban unskilled labor markets.

WTO Ministerial Outcome Imbalanced Against Developing Countries

Martin Khor 12/22/05

By Martin Khor, This paper is a brief analysis of the Hong Kong Ministerial by the Third World Network.

China-Japan Oil Rivalry Spills Over into Africa

Joshua Eisenman, Devin T. Stewart 12/09/05

Devin Stewart and Joshua Eisenman maintain that the United States is ignoring geopolitical dynamics playing out over oil in Africa.

An Enquiry into Time Allocation and Rural Household Production, and Their Implications for Economic Well-Being

Horacio Lucas Zandamela
University of the Witwatersrand,
Graduate School of Public & Development Management

the objective of Horácio Lucas Zandamela's paper is to analyse certain aspects of time allocation and their implications for economic well-being in Mozambique.

Policy Coherence Towards East Asia: Development Challenges for OECD Countries

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 12/01/05

International Regulation of Transnational Corporations

Sarah Anderson
Institute for Policy Studies

Sarah Anderson examines four attempts at regulating the growing power of global corporations.

The Bretton Woods Institutions: Governance without Legitimacy?

Ariel Buira
Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four

External Debt, Growth and Sustainability

Roberto Frenkel
Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad (CEDES)

In a previous essay (Frenkel, 2001) we analysed the situation of the Latin American countries in the context of financial globalization in the late 1990s. This paper sets out a more formal analytical approach to this subject. In particular, we examine the dynamics of external debt from a balance-of-payments perspective, using the concept of sustainability.

Energy in a Changing World


Coby van der Linde's inaugural lecture as Professor of Geopolitics and Energy Management at Groningen University

A New Voting Structure for the IMF

Ariel Buira
Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four

"In view of its great influence, it is of interest to consider to what extent the Fund’s own governance meets standards of transparency and accountability required to ensure the legitimacy of its decisions, the ownership by member countries of the programmes it supports and the good use of the public resources at its disposal."

Policy Space in Historical Perspective

Ha-Joon Chang
University of Cambridge, Faculty of Economics and Politics

Ha-Joon Chang argues that over the last quarter of a century, the “policy space” available for the developing countries has shrunk so much so that their ability to achieve economic development is being threatened.

Changing Course: Alternative Approaches to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals and Fight HIV/AIDS

ActionAid International 11/04/05

This ActionAid report assess the degree to which contemporary macroeconomic policies will enable countries to attain the Millenium Development Goals by the target date of 2015—or not.

The $100 Laptop: The Next Two Billion People to Go Digital

Nicholas Negroponte
One Laptop per Child

Nicholas Negroponte describes his latest venture, One Laptop per Child, a non-profit organization created to manufacture and distribute inexpensive laptops so that every child in the world has access to knowledge and modern forms of education. (Transcript only)

One World: The Ethics of Globalization


The book considers four global issues: climate change, the role of the World Trade Organization, human rights and humanitarian intervention, and foreign aid. Peter Singer addresses each issue from an ethical perspective.

The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth


Benjamin Friedman argues that economic growth is a prerequisite for the creation of a liberal, open society. He contends that periods of robust economic growth encourage tolerance, democracy and generous public support for the poor, while economic stagnation and insecurity result in the very opposite.

In Search of the Diaspora Effect: Lessons from Taiwanese and Indian ‘brain gain’ for Jamaican ‘brain drain’

Jason Jackson 10/27/05

The movement of highly skilled persons - scientists, engineers as well as entrepreneurs has been one of the key features of the current wave of globalisation. However, the bulk of the much-lauded factor mobility associated with globalisation has been one-sided, capital moving with increased freedom from North to South and skilled (but less so unskilled) labour from developing countries being welcomed in the North. Much of the recent influx of the highly skilled migrants has been directed towards technology poles in the advanced industrialised countries, such as Silicon Valley Route 128 in the United States. However, an increasingly important trend currently observed sees developing country migrants returning to their home countries participating in high technology sectors overseas. Many of these returning migrants play important roles in technology-intensive ventures back home, both as employees by existing firms as well as entrepreneurs, leading traditional discussions of ‘brain drain' to increasingly include reference to ‘brain gain’ and ‘brain circulation’.

Is a Fairer Globalization Possible?

Kemal Dervis, Mary Robinson, Stephen Macedo 10/26/05

Is a Fairer Globalization Possible? explored alternative policies and governance structures for bringing about more equal globalization for all. A distinguished panel of speakers discussed how globalization affects democratic deliberation and political choice at the international, national, and local level.

More Than Charity: Cosmopolitan Alternatives to the "Singer Solution"

Andrew Kuper
Ethics & International Affairs

Andrew Kuper explores how the poor can also come to benefit systematically from mechanisms of social cooperation.

Is the Pattern of Wage Differentials Stable Over Time? A Cluster Analysis in Turkish Manufacturing Industry

Emel Memis 10/25/05

Emel Memis presents empirical measurements of inter-industry hourly wage differentials in Turkish manufacturing industry.

Limits to Universal Trade Liberalisation:
The Post-ATC Scenario of Textiles & Clothing Sector in South Asia

P. L. Beena
Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum

The main focus of P. L. Beena's paper is to analyse the sustainability of export performance of T&C in South Asian countries.

Special and Differential Treatment in Trade Regimes: A Comparative Analysis between GATT, the WTO, the FTAA, and Cotonou

Pável Isa Contreras
Caribbean Policy Development Centre (CPDC)

Pável Isa Contreras and Miguel Ceara-Hatton argue that Special & Differential Treatment (S&D) for smaller and developing economies has been substantially weakened at the multilateral and hemispheric levels by introducing and enforcing far-reaching mandatory commitments, while S&D provisions are mostly non-mandatory and limited in scope and depth.

The Role of Credit in the Growth of Iranian Cooperatives

Zahra Karimi 10/25/05

Zahra Karimi shows that cooperative sector has not been successful in creating job opportunities for poor unemployed.

Using Fractionalization Indexes: Deriving methodological principles for growth studies from time series evidence

John Luiz 10/25/05

John Luiz, J. W. Fedderke, and R. H. J. de Kadt's paper highlights some limitations of cross-country studies by focusing on the time series evidence for South Africa.

Ethics, Economic Advice, and Economic Policy

Joseph Stiglitz
Initiative for Policy Dialogue

Joseph Stiglitz discusses the ethical dimensions of a variety of issues in development and international economics.

Globalization, Inequality and Poverty


Raphael Kaplinsky argues that for many – particularly for those living in Latin America, Asia and Central Europe – poverty and globalization are relational.

"Good Governance” in Monetary Policy and the Negative Real Effects of Inflation Targeting in Developing Economies

Gilberto Libanio 10/18/05

This paper analyzes the growth and employment effects of inflation targeting regimes in emerging market economies. In particular, it focuses on the case of three Latin American economies where the inflation-targeting framework has been implemented, namely Brazil, Chile and Mexico.

Exchange Rate Policies in Latin American and East and Southeast Asia

Paulo Gala 10/18/05

The objective of the paper is to compare the path of exchange rate levels in Asia and Latin America from 1970 to 1999.

Changes in Manufacturing Employment in South Africa, 1970–2004

Fiona Tregenna 10/18/05

By Fiona Tregenna, This paper focuses on the relationships between capital stock, capacity utilisation, relative factor utilisation, and employment in South Africa..

Climbing the Technological Ladder:
Options for Developing Economies Exports against the "New Terms of Trade Pessimism” (Draft)

Maria Angela Parra
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

María Angela Parra's paper argues that the policy advice should be to be aware of the risk of fallacy of composition, present especially in labor- intensive manufactures, but at the same time, to promote a process of export diversification that creates dynamic comparative advantages and goes “climbing the ladder” towards more technologically advanced products.

China in Perspective: From Economic 'Miracle' to Human Development?

Mario Biggeri
University of Florence, Faculty of Economics

Mario Biggeri's aim is to present a model that examines the economic and institutional mechanisms related to the outstanding Chinese economic growth on one side and the scarce human development of large part of its population on the other.

Trade for Development

UN Millennium Project 10/18/05

This report claims that the current international trading system is stacked against developing countries, a situation that severely hampers development and ongoing attempts to eradicate poverty.

On the Changing, Not Ending, Significance of Industrial Policy

Julius Kiiza 10/18/05

Julius Kiiza asks whether nationalistic industrial policies make sense in the current age of global governance, WTO rules and increased reliance on foreign trade.

What Regional Integration and Economic Partnership Agreements Make Sense at this Time for Africa?

Chukwuma Agu
African Institute for Applied Economics

Chukwuma Agu considers whether developing countries need regional integration arrangements (RIAs) and Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs).

Implementing Inflation Targeting in Brazil: An Institutional Analysis

Eduardo Strachman 10/17/05

Strachman argues against Central Banks separating monetary and fiscal policies when following an inflation targeting regime.

Minsky's Financial Fragility Applied to the Case of Colombia, 1970–2000

Edgar Pardo 10/17/05

We apply Minsky's financial instability hypothesis to Colombia between 1970 and 2000. Financial instability was latent during those three decades, increasing in the 1990s with the implementation of structural adjustment reforms.

Trust, Freedom, and Wealth Creation: A Political Economy of Dollarization in Lebanon

Armen Papazian 10/17/05

This paper explores currency substitution in Lebanon within the context of the recently growing debate on dollarization.

Why MES with Human Rights? Integrating Macro Economic Strategies with Human Rights

Radhika Balakrishnan 10/17/05

This report documents a discussion between economists and human rights activists on the shared ground that addressing the problems of poor people is the right question.

The Global Migration of Talent: What Does it Mean for Developing Countries?

Devesh Kapur
Center for Global Development

Devesh Kapur and John McHale explore available policy responses to improve the net effect on development without making the international migration system even more illiberal than it is today.

Resources Lost… Resource (To Be) Regained? Some Consequences of Capital Flight in the Philippines

Edsel L. Beja, Jr. 10/10/05

We present estimates of the economic cost of capital flight in the Philippines. If capital flight had been controlled or restricted, the Philippines would have had more robust economic performance and generated more jobs.

Putting Development First: The Importance of Policy Space in the WTO and IFIs

Kevin Gallagher 10/07/05

In this book, edited by Kevin Gallagher, many notable experts argue that the economic rationale for preserving policy space in trade negotiations is justified now more than ever.

Capital Account Regulation in Chile and Colombia

Ricardo Ffrench-Davis 10/06/05

During the 1990s, a period of generalized financial liberalization and large foreign capital flows towards Latin America, Chile and Colombia opted for maintaining prudential capital account regulations. This paper presents the rationale behind those regulations, describes their operation and evaluates their effectiveness.

Migration in an Interconnected World: New Directions for Action


The international community has failed to realize the full potential of migration and has not risen to the many opportunities and challenges it presents. The Global Commission on International Migration stresses the need for greater coherence, cooperation and capacity to achieve a more effective governance of international migration.

The Employment Impact of Globalisation on Developing Countries

Sanjaya Lall
University of Oxford, Department of International Development (Queen Elizabeth House), International Labour Organization

The relationship between globalization and employment is of growing significance to policy makers in developing countries, but is surprisingly difficult to analyse theoretically and empirically.

Informalisation of Women's Workforce Participation: A Consideration of Recent Trends in Asia

Jayati Ghosh
UN Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)

The process of feminisation of export employment that has occurred in developing Asia since the early 1980s and which peaked in the early 1990s, has since begun to recede. External competitive pressures are creating tendencies for more exploitative and volatile use of all labour, including women's labour.

Ties that Collide: Embeddedness under Democratization and Neo-liberalization

LaDawn Haglund 10/01/05

This paper uses the example of public goods privatization to argue that efforts to promote social and economic citizenship under democratic governments and drives toward neo-liberalism are mutually inconsistent.

Globalisation, Trade Flows and Anti Dumping: Recent Indian Experience

K. Narayanan 10/01/05

This paper examines the use of the provisions of anti-dumping by India against other countries and the pattern of such actions by others on Indian exports.

Hedging China with FTAs

Sherman Katz, Devin T. Stewart 10/01/05

By Sherman Katz and Devin Stewart, Article outlines possibility of an East Asia economic zone to include Japan, South Korea, and Australia in order to nudge China toward transparency and accountability.

Economic Openness, Financial Fragility and Corporate Finance

Martin Pablo Abeles 10/01/05

The paper applies Minsky’s well-known trinity—the hedged, speculative and Ponzi financial positions of firms—to analyze the evolution of Argentina’s corporate sector prior to the December 2001 financial breakdown.

The Costs and Benefits of Trade Facilitation

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 10/01/05

This OECD Policy Brief looks at the benefits that can be generated by trade facilitation, as well as the costs and challenges of achieving it, so as to make sure that countries can fully reap the gains of further multilateral trade liberalisation.

Making Open Markets Work for Development

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 10/01/05

This OECD report claims that further market opening should help more developing countries to better integrate into the world economy.

Financial Intermediation and Fragility

Ramaa Vasudevan 10/01/05

A peculiar feature of the present international economy is that the leading ‘hegemonic’ country in the sense of the country whose currency enjoys the status of ‘international money’ has a large and mounting external deficit which it finances by issuing debt in its own currency, while absorbing savings and capital from the rest of the world.

Taxation Policy and Development

Alex Cobham
Oxford Council on Good Governance

This OCGG Economy Analysis paper sets out the broad facts of taxation in different regions and countries of the world, and assesses how they have developed over time. Over the last thirty years, rich countries have generally maintained or extended their overall tax take (as a share of gross domestic product), through increasing both direct (e.g. income tax) and indirect (e.g. VAT) tax revenues. Trade taxes and the associated revenues have all but vanished.

The Role of Employment in Promoting the Millenium Development Goals

Siddiqur Rahman Osmani
United Nations Development Program, International Labour Organization

By Siddiqur Rahman Osmani, This paper attempts to identify multiple pathways through which an employment-focussed development strategy can contribute towards speedier achievement of the U.N. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Trade and Investment Cooperation between Asia and Africa: Selected Issues

Chandrakant Patel 10/01/05

The conjuncture of rapid structural transformation in a growing number of economies of Asia, signs of revival in Africa’s economic performance and stagnation in demand and income growth in the advanced economies provide a useful point of reference for assessing efforts to strengthen Afro-Asian economic cooperation.

As Américas em uma Encruzilhada: Repor o Trabalho Decente na Agenda do Desenvolvimento

Mario Cimoli, Roberto Frenkel, James Heintz, Jan Kregel, Cecilia Lopez Montano, Jerry Maldonado, Manuel F. Montes, Annalisa Primi, Manuel Riesco Larrain 09/22/05

Portuguese translation of Global Policy Innovations White Paper 1, The Americas at a Crossroads: Putting Decent Work Back on the Development Agenda.

Las Américas en una Encrucijada: Hacia la Reinserción del Trabajo Digno en la Agenda del Desarrollo

Mario Cimoli, Roberto Frenkel, James Heintz, Jan Kregel, Cecilia Lopez Montano, Jerry Maldonado, Manuel F. Montes, Annalisa Primi, Manuel Riesco Larrain 09/22/05

Spanish translation of Global Policy Innovations White Paper 1, The Americas at a Crossroads: Putting Decent Work Back on the Development Agenda.

Bogota Agenda


Global Responsibilities: How Can Multinational Corporations Deliver on Human Rights?

Andrew Kuper, Peter Singer 09/19/05

Who has the responsibility to alleviate poverty and uphold human rights in a globalized world where corporations often wield more power than nation-states?

The Americas at a Crossroads: Putting Decent Work Back on the Development Agenda

Mario Cimoli, Roberto Frenkel, James Heintz, Jan Kregel, Cecilia Lopez Montano, Jerry Maldonado, Manuel F. Montes, Annalisa Primi, Manuel Riesco Larrain 09/19/05

Over the last two decades, employment has occupied a less than prominent role on the international development agenda. Yet, for most working men and women throughout the world, access to a good job represents the difference between a life of poverty and a life of hope and economic opportunity. It is the primary engine of wealth creation; the vehicle through which men and women sustain their families; and a basic tool for social advancement.

Opening Up Trade in Services: Crucial for Economic Growth

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 09/01/05

Services, from health to banking, have become the single largest sector in many economies worldwide. They not only provide the bulk of employment and income in many countries, but they also serve as vital input, such as telecommunications, for producing other goods and services. So an efficient services sector is crucial for the overall economy. And because of this, agreement on opening up services markets is crucial to the success of the current global trade talks.

Labor Market Participation Decisions of Married Women: Evidence from Turkey

Burca Kizilirmak 09/01/05

Burça Kizilirmak examines the determinants of wives’ labor force participation in Turkey.

Reforming the Governance of the IMF and the World Bank

Ariel Buira
Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four

Sixty years after their creation, the Bretton Woods institutions face a crisis of legitimacy that impairs their credibility and effectiveness. At the roots of this crisis lies the unrepresentative nature of their structure of governance, which places control of the institutions in the hands of a small group of industrial countries that do not use its resources.

The IMF and the World Bank at Sixty

Ariel Buira
Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four

As the Bretton Woods institutions enter their sixtieth year, they face a number of challenges. Some are the result of changes that have occurred in the world economy while others are the outcome of their approaches to the problems of stabilization and development, and of their own governance structure. The IMF and the World Bank at Sixty presents a selection of essays prepared for the Group of Twenty-Four Developing Nations (G24), by some of the foremost authorities in their fields, which address these challenges and suggest the need for reform in several areas. Ariel Buira’s introduction presents a critical overview of the functioning of the IMF and the international monetary system, underscoring a number of shortcomings that could be remedied to make it more supportive of development through changes in governance.

Expanding National Policy Space for Development: Why the Multilateral Trading System Must Change

South Centre 09/01/05

Robert M. Hamwey's paper demonstrates how developing countries’ national policy space is affected by agreements comprising the Multilateral Trading System (MTS) under the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Tax Us If You Can

Tax Justice Network 09/01/05

By several experts, This paper highlighs the persistent problem of tax evasion and tax avoidance by wealthy corporations and wealthy citizens of wealthy nations

Give Us Your Best and Your Brightest

Devesh Kapur
Center for Global Development

Give Us Your Best and Brightest by Devesh Kapur and John McHale evaluates both the issues of "brain drain" and "brain gain" to determine the effects that skilled migration has on sending countries.

Tax Evasion, Tax Avoidance and Development Finance

Alex Cobham
University of Oxford, Department of International Development (Queen Elizabeth House)

By Alex Cobham, This paper estimates the total cost to developing countries from leakages due to tax avoidance and tax evasion as US$385 billion annually, dwarfing any potential increase in aid.

Targeted Foreign Direct Investment Promotion Strategy: Attracting the “Right” FDI for Development

Jinkang Zhang 09/01/05

Both theoretical and empirical evidence shows that investment promotion has played an important role on the amount and orientation of inward FDI. This paper focuses on the analysis of the effects of tax incentives, which is widely used in many countries, and the role of promotion, strategy, techniques and institutions responsible for FDI attraction based on the experiences in a number of countries, with special focus on China’s experience.

The Post Washington Consensus Consensus

Joseph Stiglitz
Initiative for Policy Dialogue

Joseph Stiglitz presents (PowerPoint) on the emergence of a Post Washington Consensus Consensus, arguing that the Washington Consensus has proved neither necessary nor sufficient for successful development, even if each of its policies made sense for particular countries at particular times.

A Critical Analysis of the Brazilian Response to HIV/AIDS: Lessons Learned for Controlling and Mitigating the Epidemic in Developing Countries


The Brazilian National AIDS Program is widely recognized as the leading example of an integrated HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment program in a developing country. The authors critically analyze the Brazilian experience, distinguishing those elements that are unique to Brazil from the programmatic and policy decisions that can aid the development of similar programs in other low- and middle-income and developing countries.

Investing in People and Sustainable Communities

Martin Khor
Third World Network

Martin Khor and Lim Li Lin's book is part of a three-volume series that outlines examples that have brought about positive social and economic change with regard to the environment, growth, and human development.

Financing Global Development: Key Proposals and Recommendations


An analysis of innovative means of increasing financing for development.

The Development Imperative

Social Science Research Council 07/01/05

The authors transcend a pure focus economic growth and instead work toward integrated social and economic policies that place employment center stage.

The Relative Impact of Trade Liberalization on Developing Countries

Mark Weisbrot, Dean Baker
Social Science Research Council

In recent years, new trade agreements have often been promoted on the basis of their potential benefit to developing countries. Political leaders, international financial institutions and even advocacy groups have argued that rich countries such as the United States have an obligation to expand trade in order to help poorer countries grow and develop. These claims are often grossly exaggerated, as can be seen from an examination of the economic literature on trade.

The Impact on Advanced Economies of North-South Trade in Manufacturing and Services

Robert Rowthorn
Social Science Research Council

By Robert Rowthorn, This paper is concerned with the employment impact of North-South trade in manufacturing and, increasingly, services.

Debt and Trade: Time to Make the Connections

Center of Concern, International Jesuit Network for Development 07/01/05

An examination of the vicious cycle of loan conditionality and global trade policy—a cycle that prevents poor countries from meeting even modest international development targets.

Globalization, Development and Democracy

Jose Antonio Ocampo
Social Science Research Council

Although globalization reflects technological advances and economic forces, it can be molded by society and, particularly, by democratic political institutions. In fact, the form that globalization has been taking has been largely determined by explicit policy decisions. In this sense, the most disturbing aspect is the uneven and unbalanced character of the current phase of globalization and of the international policy agenda that accompanies it.

Toward a People-Centered Approach to Development

Deepak Nayyar, Ha-Joon Chang
Social Science Research Council

Development must bring about an improvement in the living conditions of people. It should, therefore, ensure the provision of basic human needs for all: not just food and clothing but also shelter, health care and education. This simple but powerful proposition is often forgotten in the pursuit of material wealth and the conventional concerns of economics.

The Priority of Human Development

Frances J. Stewart
Social Science Research Council

Gustav Ranis and Frances Stewart review the importance of Human Development as a priority for international development organizations.

Realizing Rights: Challenges for the International Forum on Development

Mary Robinson
Social Science Research Council

Mary Robinson sees a connection—between the best academic research and policy alternatives, policymakers in government and civil society actors—that is missing today and which prevents necessary reforms.


Amit Bhaduri
Social Science Research Council

The paper is divided into three parts, and a summary at the end. Part one explains how policies conditioned by historical circumstances moved away from the objective of high employment. Part two deals with the theoretical controversies in support or against particular policies. Part three sets out the basics in theory needed for a high employment policy. The paper concludes with a summary suggestion of some operational steps and observations.

Rights-Based Approach to Trade

Social Science Research Council 07/01/05

Oxfam’s core mission has always been to address the issues of poverty and social injustice. From our earliest years, we have sought to go beyond providing people with seeds and tools to addressing systemic causes of poverty.

Developed Countries' Trade Policies: Disguised Unilateralism

Social Science Research Council

A look at the recent WTO reports on the periodical Trade Policy Reviews of the United States1 will show that the concern about a resort to unilateralism has become a recurring feature of WTO discussions. The relatively recent but growing resort by the U.S. to bilateral and regional trade arrangements has caused widely shared concern in the WTO.

The (Forgotten) Rural World

Jayati Ghosh 06/29/05

One of the more remarkable features of the past decade has been the apparent disappearance of the rural sector from the economic policy agenda in most developing countries.

Mobilising Political Will

Helsinki Process on Globalisation and Democracy 06/29/05

This Helsinki Process Report makes recommendations aimed at overcoming the problems of globalisation. Among these are reviewing the Geneva Convention to make it more relevant to current realities and further limiting greenhouse gas emissions.

2005 UN Report on Ending Hunger, Millennium Development Goal Number 1

United Nations Development Program 06/15/05

Extreme poverty remains a daily reality for more than 1 billion people who subsist on less than $1 a day. Hunger and malnutrition are almost equally pervasive: more than 800 million people have too little to eat to meet their daily energy needs. For young children, the lack of food can be perilous since it retards their physical and mental development and threatens their very survival. More than a quarter of children under age 5 in developing countries are malnourished. Overcoming poverty and hunger is possible

WHO study on modern food biotechnology, human health and development


This WHO study reviews evidence in several broad areas related to the use of genetically modified (GM) organisms in the food supply (GM foods), including a review of GM food products currently available, the assessment of risks and benefits, the broader impact on societies, and the existing regulatory capacity in countries.

The Hardest Job in the World: Five Crucial Tasks for the New President of the World Bank

Nancy Birdsall, Devesh Kapur
Center for Global Development

This report sets out five crucial tasks for the World Bank president to tackle over the next five years.

Helping Workers to Navigate in "Globalized" Labour Markets

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 06/01/05

This policy brief by the OECD analyzes rising international economic integration as a factor fuelling insecurity among workers about employment and earnings.

The WTO Negotiations on Industrial Tariffs: What Is at Stake for Developing Countries?

Yilmaz Akyuz
Third World Network

Yilmaz Akyuz focuses on the implications of the WTO negotiations on industrial tariffs or NAMA (non agricultural market access) for developing countries.

Understanding the Relationship between Institutions and Economic Development

Ha-Joon Chang
World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)

In this paper, Ha-Joon Chang discusses how the theory on the role of institutions in development can be improved, by critically examining the current orthodox discourse on institutions and highlighting some of its key theoretical issues. After a discussion of some definitional problems (section 2), I will discuss some problems arising from the widespread failure to distinguish between the forms and the functions of institution (section 3). Then I will critically examine the excessive emphasis on property rights in the orthodox literature on institutions and development (section 4) and discuss a number of problems that arise from the simplistic view on institutional change that underlies the orthodox view on institutional persistence (section 5).

Agricultural Subsidies and Trade: The Key Alternatives

Peter Rosset 04/15/05

Agricultural trade and farm subsidies have played a central role in the larger controversy over "free trade" and trade agreements. What’s at stake is not just relatively narrow measures like trade volumes, economic growth rates and farm productivity, but rather the very future of our global food system. What is being negotiated -– in a world where nearly half the population goes hungry -– is the ability of every woman, man and child on this planet to feed themselves.

The Argentinian Debt: History, Default and Restructuring

Roberto Frenkel
Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad (CEDES)

By Mario Damill, Roberto Frenkel, Martín Rapetti, This paper examines the processes that led to Argenitina's debt default and its subsequent restructuring.

A Better Globalization

Kemal Dervis
Center for Global Development

Kermal Dervis and Ceren Ozen press for reform on a broad front with a renewed, more legitimate, and more effective United Nations as the overarching framework for global governance based on global consent.

Mobilizing IMF Gold for Multilateral Debt Cancellation

Sony Kapoor 03/01/05

Sony Kapoor examines how using IMF gold sales to fund multilateral debt cancellation could release much needed resources for meeting the millennium development goals (MDGs).

The End of Poverty

Jeffrey Sachs 03/01/05

Jeffrey Sachs's book argues that extreme poverty can be ended in our time.

Good Jobs, Bad Jobs, No Jobs

Economic Policy Institute, Global Policy Network 03/01/05

Faced with diminishing formal sector job prospects, the informal economy has blossomed in most developing countries over the last two decades. Far from providing workers with a reliable alternative ladder out of poverty, informal economy workers continue to struggle.

Indigenous Peoples, Resource Extraction and Sustainable Development: An Ethical Approach


By David A. Lertzman and Harrie Vredenburg. Resource extraction companies worldwide are involved with Indigenous peoples. Historically these interactions have been antagonistic, yet there is a growing public expectation for improved ethical performance of resource industries to engage with Indigenous peoples.

Governing Globalization - Globalizing Governance: New Approaches to Global Problem Solving

Helsinki Process on Globalisation and Democracy

The Helsinki Process Track on “New Approaches to Global Problem Solving” has examined why the current instruments of global governance are not producing satisfactory progress in solving global problems.

The Changing Role of the World Bank in Global Health

World Bank 01/01/05

By Jennifer Prah Ruger, The World Bank has evolved into the world's largest financial contributor to health-related projects, now committing more than $1 billion annually for new HNP projects. It is also one of the world's largest supporters in the fight against HIV/AIDS.

Diversity in Development: Reconsidering the Washington Consensus

Forum on Debt and Development 12/01/04

An exploration of what is right and what is wrong with the policies prescribed by the Washington Consensus. Contributing authors include professors of economics from Asia, Latin America, North America, Africa and Europe, former government ministers and central bankers, and high-level officials of the World Bank, WTO, IMF and United Nations.

Reform Proposals for the Governance Structures of the International Financial Institutions

Aldo Caliari, Frank Schroeder
New Rules for Global Finance

Frank Schroeder and Aldo Caliari press for crucial reforms of the governance structure of the BWIs with a view to make them more accountable, participatory and transparent.

Alternatives to Economic Globalization: A Better World Is Possible

International Forum on Globalization 11/01/04

Alternatives to Economic Globalization proposes concrete steps that people can take today to bring about the better world that we all know is possible.

The "Singapore Issues" in the WTO: Implications and Recent Developments

Martin Khor
Third World Network

The so-called “Singapore issues” have been perhaps the most contentious of the issues that have been discussed or negotiated in the World Trade Organisation since its establishment in 1995. The issues are investment, competition policy, government procurement and trade facilitation. The first three of these are strictly non-trade issues, and much of the controversy has been on whether issues that are not directly related to trade should be allowed to be negotiated as treaties in the WTO, which is after all a trade organisation. It is agreed that the fourth issue is related to trade, and the debate has been on whether there should be binding multilateral rules in the WTO on this issue.

Financing Africa's Future Growth and Development: Some Innovations

Ernest Aryeetey
Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research

Ernest Aryeetey claims that the main development challenge facing Africa now is how to reduce significantly the extent and depth of poverty in the region while transforming the structure of its economies.

Migration and Development

Deepak Nayyar 09/25/04

Deepak Nayyar claims that income disparities and population imbalances between countries are vast, while the spread of education combined with the revolution in transport has led to a significant increase in the mobility of labour.

The Future of Global Governance

Joseph Stiglitz
Initiative for Policy Dialogue

In this short paper, Joseph Stiglitz focuses his attention on the forces that may actually lead to meaningful reform of global government

Corporate Social Responsibility in Mining in Southern Africa: Fair accountability or just greenwash?


Ralph Hamann and Paul Kapelus argue that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)-related narratives and practices can be fruitfully assessed with reference to accountability and fairness as key criteria. Brief case studies of mining in South Africa and Zambia suggest that there are still important gaps between mining companies’ CSR activities, on the one hand, and accountability and fairness, on the other.

Structural Impediments to Economic Globalization in the Middle East


By Mehran Kamrava, This article examines basic tension between the stated objectives of Middle Eastern leaders to integrate their countries into the world economy, on the one hand, and the actual, tangible levels of this integration, on the other.

Reforming Labor Market Institutions: Unemployment Insurance and Employment Protection


Olivier Blanchard argues that markets do a poor job of insuring workers against unemployment, implying the need for the state to provide unemployment insurance and to define rules regulating separations.

Applying Economics to Economists

Dean Baker, Mark Weisbrot
Center for Economic and Policy Research, World Bank, International Monetary Fund

Economists generally believe that it is important for workers to be held accountable for the quality of their work in order to maintain high levels of economic efficiency. In particular, International Financial Institutions (IFIs) such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have been strong advocates of weakening regulations that limit the ability of companies to dismiss workers. While there is clearly some validity to this view, it is not clear that it has been applied to the economists at these institutions.

Health in an Age of Globalization

Angus Deaton
The Brookings Institution

By Angus Deaton, The rapid transmission of health knowledge and therapies from one rich country to another has led to a swift convergence of adult mortality rates among the rich of the world, particularly men. Globalization would do much for global health if transmission from rich to poor countries could be accelerated.

Pro-Poor Growth and Policies: The Asian Experience

United Nations Development Program 06/26/04

This paper assembles on a systematic basis the available data on Asian countries and then analyses the relationship between growth and poverty on a long-term basis. It presents the trends in growth, income inequality, and poverty incidence for different countries and different periods. These trends reveal the substantial variation in the relationship between growth and poverty, which is then explained on the basis of changes in the level of inequality.

Labour Market Trends and Globalization's Impact on Them

International Labour Organization 06/26/04

International Labour Organization - Unemployment and the loss of jobs in developed countries is quite commonly associated with globalization. The main arguments that the impact of globalization is negative are as follows: Multinationals have exported jobs from developed countries to developing countries through foreign investments and outward production in special economic zones.

Macroeconomic Reforms and a Labour Policy Framework for India

Jayati Ghosh
Centre for Economic Studies and Planning, Jawaharlal Nehru University

This paper is concerned with the interaction of macroeconomic and labour market policies, in the specific context of India. The argument is made that employment-intensive growth is a prerequisite for ensuring decent work for all.

The Blessing of the Commons

Political Economy Research Institute 06/26/04

PERI Working Paper Series Number 72, by John Kurien. Following the influential article of Garrett Hardin titled "tragedy of the commons," it is part of both popular and scholarly belief that unless natural resources are strictly in the domain of private or state property, their fate is inevitable ruin. Closer examination of the actions of low-income communities who depend on natural resources for their daily livelihoods has recently brought to the fore a more positive view about human proclivity for caring and nurturing common resources found in nature.

A Possible Scenario for a Deal in Agricultural Trade Reform


By John M. Weekes. Agricultural producers and traders and their governments have run out of patience with the predicament in which they find themselves. The problem of lack of reform in this sector is now seen as a denial of justice more than as an economic issue.

A Development-Focused Agricultural Deal


By Dominique Njinkeu and Francis Mangeni. OECD countries export at least a quarter of their production of most agricultural commodities, and the growth potential for their market share in the developed world is very limited. Low-income countries constitute the only real potential for expanding trade in agriculture. Trade expansion will, in turn, materialize only if demand in these countries also expands. The number of people moving out of poverty in low-income countries is thus the major determinant of the prospects of agricultural production and trade.

The Way Forward in Agriculture


By Luisa Bernal. This “scenario” paper aims to identify the contours of a fair and sustainable arrangement in agriculture that could be proposed to G20 Leaders with an eye to helping break the current impasse in the agriculture negotiations at the multilateral level.

Islam, Globalization, and Economic Performance in the Middle East

Marcus Noland, Howard Pack 06/01/04

This paper explores the possible ways for the Middle East's economy to absorb new entrants to the labor force. The regional economy must grow 5–6 percent annually for the next two decades in order to acheive this absorption, a growth rate it is unlikely to sustain.

Commodities Under Neo-liberalism: the Case of Cocoa


Irfan ul Haque - The paper examines the case of cocoa as an illustration of the problems faced by primary commodity producers. The impact of market liberalisation within cocoa producing countries and industrial countries, the main consumers, on the cocoa price and cocoa farmers is examined.

Tariff Negotiations in Agriculture: Seeking a Compromise


Market access and specifically the tariff cut formula in agriculture is admittedly the make or break issue in the current round of negotiations. According to the Chairman of the Special Session of the Committee on Agriculture (SSCoA), as of the second negotiating meeting in April 2004 following the setback in Cancun, there was no indication of any emerging convergence on the blended formula contained in the Derbez text, nor was there a consensus on any other alternative. The Chairman also stated that at that stage no conclusions could be drawn on whether or not the negotiations would achieve an agreement on a framework on agriculture by July 2004, which would include all three pillars of the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA). If this is to be interpreted as implying that a framework text on the two other pillars of the AoA would be possible by July 2004, this is likely also unattainable, given the explicit and implicit linkages between the three pillars that have been made all along by several WTO members who are prepared to make concessions in one of the pillars contingent upon concessions being made by others in another pillar. Hence it is imperative that a compromise is found on market access in order to increase the likelihood of an overall framework agreement by the set date of July 2004.

Forging a Deal on Agricultural Trade Reform


Patrick A. Messerlin - The Doha Round focus on agriculture is often misunderstood in OECD countries because this sector represents barely 2-4 percent of OECD GDP and employment, and because the history of the OECD countries underlines the importance of manufacturing and services as engines of long-term growth.

From the Boom in Capital Inflows to Financial Traps

Roberto Frenkel
Initiative for Policy Dialogue

By Roberto Frenkel, The paper examines the performance of highly indebted countries from the point of view of their links with the international financial market.

Trip Wires and Speed Bumps

Ilene Grabel 05/01/04

This paper investigates the shortcomings of the “early warning systems” (EWS) that are currently being promoted with such vigor in the multilateral and academic community. It then advocates an integrated “trip wire-speed bump” regime to reduce financial risk and, as a consequence, to reduce the frequency and depth of financial crises in developing countries.

US and EU Cotton Production and Export Policies and Their Impact on West and Central Africa

Realizing Rights: The Ethical Globalization Initiative 05/01/04

In recent years, world cotton prices have declined significantly. Small-scale cotton farmers in West and Central Africa, whose livelihoods depend on cotton, have borne the brunt of this decline. The main factors causing the drop in prices are the cotton production and export policies of the United States (US) and the European Union (EU).

The Development Round of Trade Negotiations In The Aftermath of Cancun

Joseph Stiglitz
Initiative for Policy Dialogue

The Paradox of Agricultural Subsidies

Timothy Wise
Global Development and Environment Institute

World trade talks have foundered recently, in part due to developing country demands that industrialized countries reduce their large farm support programs to allow poor farmers in the global South to compete more fairly. Claiming that Northern farm subsidies amount to over $1 billion a day, and that the average European cow receives more in subsidies than the nearly three billion people who live on less than two dollars a day, Southern governments, farmer groups, and international aid groups have demanded steep cuts in Northern agricultural subsidies.

Economic Transformation and Multilateral Reform

Ariel Buira 05/01/04

Over the past half century the world economy has become increasingly interdependent. Developments in the economy of one country or region are transmitted to other countries through high levels of international trade and financial flows.

Successful Employment and Labour Market Policies in Europe and Asia and the Pacific

International Labour Organization 04/11/04

Over the last ten years, a number of countries in Europe and in Asia have been able to significantly improve their employment situation, while most of the world was witnessing an increase in unemployment, underemployment and low paid work. What are the reasons for their success during that period? Can other countries learn from their experience?

Job Anxiety Is Real -- and It's Global

Sandra Polaski
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Sondra Polaski examines the huge global oversupply of labor and intense competition for an expanding array of jobs.

A Fiscal Insurance Proposal for the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union

Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four 03/08/04

By Laura dos Reis. This paper proposes the implementation of a fiscal insurance mechanism for the member countries of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). Fiscal insurance would be important to cushion against transitory shocks and would also reinforce the union’s long-term viability.

Trade, Growth, Poverty Reduction and Human Development: Some Linkages and Policy Implications (Draft)

Kamal Malhotra 03/01/04

Presentation by Kamal Malhotra, Senior Adviser on Inclusive Globalization in the UNDPs Bureau for Development Policy, prepared for the XVIII G-24 Technical Group Meeting, March 8-9, 2004.

Building Alternatives to Neo-Liberal Globalisation: The Challenges Facing NEPAD

African Labour Research Network (ALRN), National Labour and Economic Development Institute (NALEDI) 02/27/04

National Labour and Economic Development Institute (NALEDI)hosted a conference entitled 'Alternatives to Neo-Liberal Globalisation: Challenges Facing NEPAD'. The objective of the conference was to consolidate the many separate assessments of NEPAD into one collective evaluation.

Capital Market Liberalization, Poverty and Inequality

Alex Cobham
Initiative for Policy Dialogue

Research has typically addressed capital account liberalisation in terms of its growth effects. While no systematic growth benefits have been identified, potentially damaging poverty and inequality impacts have been overlooked. This paper identifies a number of channels through which these may occur.

A Fair Globalization: Creating Opportunity for All

International Labour Organization 02/24/04

The report of the ILO's World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization is a positive but critical message for changing the current path of globalization. It says that the potentials of globalization, in terms of growing connectivity and productive capacity, are immense. However, current systems of governance of globalization at national and international levels have not realized such potentials for most of the world's people-and in many instances have made matters worse.

Up from Sin: A Portfolio Approach to Salvation


This study develops a proposal that has the potential to greatly improve the ability of developing countries to reduce their exposure to other countries' interest rate and exchange rate volatility and to lower their cost of raising capital abroad by borrowing in their own local currency. (Published as a Technical Paper by the G-24)

Financial Liberalization, Fragility and the Socialization of Risk: Can Capital Controls Work?

C. P. Chandrasekhar 01/23/04

In the wave of neo-liberal economic reform unleashed in developing countries during the 1980s and 1990s, there has been a relatively new and substantial emphasis on the liberalization of financial sector polices. Supervision and prudential regulation is intensified in the aftermath of financial failure, only to be diluted subsequently, subject to the adherence to a broad set of guidelines relating to capital adequacy, accounting practices and disclosure norms.

Debating the Tobin Tax

New Rules for Global Finance 01/21/04

This book, the second in a series, explores the argument for and against one of the most provocative policy proposals in the international economic policy arena – the Tobin Tax.

The Virtues of Prudential Regulation in Financial Markets

Randall Dodd
Initiative for Policy Dialogue

By Randall Dodd, This chapter analyzes a set of regulatory proposals that are designed for developing countries to remedy financial market short-comings and make financial markets and overall economies more efficient as well as less vulnerable to financial sector disruptions and distortions.

Equitable Carbon Revenue Distribution under an International Emissions Trading Regime

Daniel Kammen
Political Economy Research Institute

The long-term nature of the climate problem requires fundamental, long-term changes in how economies produce goods and services, particularly reductions in the amount of fossil-fuel energy they use. One of the most likely policies to encourage this transition is a system of overlapping national and international emissions permits.

A Development-focused Allocation of the Special Drawing Rights

Ernest Aryeetey
World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)

Efforts to realize the issue of development-focused Special Drawing Rights (SDR) by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have been on-going for many years. Recently, however, the campaign first gained a new momentum immediately after the Asian financial crises with the new liquidity problems of developing nations following the collapse of private capital markets.

"Good Governance" for Whom?

Alejandro Bendana 12/30/03

Alejandro Bendana claims that separating the notion of governance from democracy is not simply inaccurate, it is dangerous.

Burden Sharing at the IMF

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 12/12/03

Aziz Ali Mohammed - In the context of the financial governance of the IMF, what are the equity implications of the manner in which the IMF distributes the cost of running its regular (non-concessionary) lending operations as well as the modalities of funding its concessionary lending and debt relief operations?

Revenue Potential of the Currency Transaction Tax for Development Finance: A Critical Appraisal

World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) 12/01/03

By Machiko Nissanke The paper presents revenue estimates from the currency transaction taxes in light of recent changes in the composition and structure of foreign exchange markets.

A Global Lottery and a Global Premium Bond

World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) 12/01/03

By Tony Addison and Abdur R. Chowdhury. The world lottery market now amounts to at least US$126 billion in sales. World market sales for all gaming products (public, charitable and commercial) total some US$1 trillion, of which Internet gambling accounts for US$32 billion. This paper assesses the prospects for harnessing this large and growing market for the purposes of development finance by means of a global lottery and a global premium bond.

Environmental Taxation and Revenue for Development


Agnar Sandmo - This paper considers the possible role of environmental taxes for economic development. It is therefore useful to start with a review of the basic economic insights in the field of environmental taxation in order to prepare the ground for the application of the theory to problems of economic development and the global environment.

Increasing Poverty in a Globalised World

Erik Reinert
The Other Canon Foundation

During the 1990s, a majority of the world's nations have experienced falling real wages – in many cases real wages have declined both rapidly and considerably. In some of the former communist countries a human crisis of large proportions is evolving.

Macroeconomic Stability, Growth and Employment


The paper attempts to provide a critical assessment of the varied experiences of stabilization. It is largely observed that while stabilization has indeed yielded substantial price discipline, inflation in particular, growth has remained inadequate, volatile and far from reaching the sustained levels required to make any perceptible gains in reducing employment and poverty.

National Taxation, Fiscal Federalism and Global Taxation

World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)

Taxation, Development finance, Fiscal federalism


Private Donations for International Development

World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) 12/01/03

Charities, Philanthropy, Development finance


The International Finance Facility

World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) 12/01/03

By George Mavrotas. The paper discusses the International Finance Facility (IFF), a joint HM Treasury–DFID proposal to increase development aid substantially for the Millennium Development Goals to be achieved by 2015.

Innovative Sources for Development Finance: Over-Arching Issues

World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) 12/01/03

In analysing proposals for new sources of development funding, there are several issues that arise across the board. What is the role of new sources in relation to existing overseas development assistance? Should we be seeking new sources that generate a double dividend? Can the key elements of a proposal be achieved by another route? What should be the fiscal architecture? Is there a modern transfer problem? It is with these general concerns that the present paper deals. Its aim is to bring to bear on global public finance the accumulated knowledge in the field of national public finance, and more generally public economics.

Making Global Trade Work for People

Kamal Malhotra
United Nations Development Program

Kamal Malhotra argues that the current global trading system has fallen short of expectations.

The Revenue and Double Dividend Potential of Taxes on International Private Capital Flows and Securities Transaction

Ilene Grabel
World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)

This paper explores two proposals to tax financial flows in developing economies—the package of policies implemented to various degrees by Chile and Colombia during the 1990s, widely referred to today as the Chilean model—and securities transactions taxes (STTs).

Remittances by Emigrants: Issues and Evidence

World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) 12/01/03

Remittances, after foreign direct investment, are currently the most important source of external finance to developing countries. Remittances surpass foreign aid, and tend to be more stable than such volatile capital flows as portfolio investment and international bank credit. Remittances are also an international redistribution from low-income migrants to their families in the home country. Worldwide, remittances are relatively concentrated in a group of developing countries: the top 20 recipient-countries of workers’ remittances capture around 80 per cent of total remittances by workers to the developing countries. The three main source countries of remittances are the US, Saudi Arabia and Germany, while in terms of value, the three main recipient countries are India, Mexico and the Philippines.

A Survey of Global Commissions and Processes of Global Governance

Helsinki Process on Globalisation and Democracy 11/26/03

The purpose of this collection is to provide a brief overview of different commissions, processes and initiatives related to global governance.

UNDP Thematic Summary Report: Fiscal Policy


By John Weekes, Centre for Development Policy and Research, School of Oriental & African Studies, London

Food Sovereignty: Global Rallying Cry of Farmer Movements

Peter Rosset 10/25/03

Peter Rosset: "Food sovereignty says that feeding a nation’s people is an issue of national security -- of sovereignty. If the people of a country must depend for their next meal on the vagaries of the global economy, on the goodwill of a superpower not to use food as a weapon, or on the unpredictability and high cost of long-distance shipping, that country is not secure in the sense of either national security or food security."

United to Fight HIV/AIDS?


A new institutional order is emerging in the global fight against HIV/AIDS. Although the United States has come to dominate this new configuration, multiple actors, including national governments, multilateral institutions, private foundations, businesses, and the newly created Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria, bring new resources and new voices to bear in an increasingly diverse and, to some extent, competitive and chaotic global environment.

Report of the Meeting of Eminent Persons on Commodity Issues


The General Assembly of the United Nations, at its fifty-seventh session, discussed commodity issues under agenda item 84 (b), “Macroeconomic policy questions: commodities”. The General Assembly had before it document A/57/381, entitled “World Commodity Trends and Prospects: Note by the Secretary-General”, which had been prepared by the UNCTAD secretariat.

Assessing the Risks in the Private Provision of Essential Services


Tim Kessler  -  Based on a reading of the preliminary WDR draft, it appears that the World Bank is considerably more sanguine about market-based approaches to essential services, especially infrastructure services such as water and electricity, than is the UNDP – or this paper.

"Free Market" Economics and Feminist Alternatives

Global Development and Environment Institute 09/01/03

Dr. Julie A. Nelson, Senior Research Associate, Global Development and Environment Institute (Tufts University, Massachusetts)

Reinventing Industrial Strategy: The Role of Government Policies in Building Industrial Competitiveness

Sanjaya Lall
University of Oxford, Department of International Development (Queen Elizabeth House)

As liberalization and globalization gather pace, concern with industrial competitiveness is growing, not just in developing countries but also in mature industrial ones. But it is the former that face the most intense competitive pressures: many find that their enterprises are unable to cope with rigours of open markets – in exporting and in competing with imports – as they open their economies. Some countries are doing very well; the problem is that many are not. Diverging industrial competitiveness in the developing world is one of the basic causes of the growing disparities in income that are now a pervasive feature of the world scene. The immense potential that globalization offers for industrial growth is being tapped by a relatively number of countries, while liberalization is driving the wedge deeper.

Five Kinds of Capital: Useful Concepts for Sustainable Development


The concept of capital has a number of different meanings. It is useful to differentiate between five kinds of capital: financial, natural, produced, human, and social. All are stocks that have the capacity to produce flows of economically desirable outputs.

Resolving the International Debt Crises Fairly

Ann Pettifor
Ethics & International Affairs

By Ann Pettifor, This essay presents the case for institutional reforms that can better protect the human rights of citizens of sovereign debtor nations during debt crises.

The Macroeconomics of Poverty Reduction: Initial Findings of the UNDP Asia-Pacific Regional Programme

Terry McKinley
United Nations Development Program

By Terry McKinley, This paper reviews two complementary sectoral policies, namely, agricultural development and employment generation, which figured prominently in recent UNDP studies of the Asia-Pacific region. The research also investigates whether a country is able to mobilize the domestic resources (for example, through savings, taxation or borrowing) to finance a high rate of public and private investment for accelerated economic growth.

Globalization and Financial Crises in Latin America

Roberto Frenkel
Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad (CEDES)

By Roberto Frenkel, This paper focuses on the financial and currency crises that have occurred in the context of financial globalization in Latin America.

Mainstreaming Social Policy Objectives in the Design of National Development Policies (Draft)

Giovanni Cornia 07/07/03

Social policy, Human well-being index


Challenges to the World bank and IMF: Developing Country Perspectives

Ariel Buira 07/01/03

This challenging and unique new volume examines some of the most burning issues on the economic agenda in the world today.

Alternatives to Inflation Targeting Monetary Policy for Stable and Egalitarian Growth

Gerald Epstein
Political Economy Research Institute

PERI Working Paper Series, Number 62. Many countries in the developing world have adopted an approach to monetary policy that focuses on maintaining a low level of inflation, to the exclusion of other important objectives such as employment generation, increasing investment or reducing poverty, despite the widespread evidence that moderate levels of inflation have few or no costs.

The Governance of the IMF in a Global Economy

Ariel Buira
Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four

Following the commitment of all participants in the Monterrey Consensus to increase the voice and participation of developing countries and transition economies in the Bretton Woods Institutions, the issue of governance has come to the fore of the IMF and World Bank.

Human Security Now


Commission on Human Security  -  Human security is concerned with safeguarding and expanding people’s vital freedoms. It requires both shielding people from acute threats and empowering people to take charge of their own lives. ,

Informalization, Economic Growth and the Challenge of Creating Viable Labor Standards in Developing Countries

Political Economy Research Institute, 06/01/03

Over recent decades, there has been the substantial rise in the proportion of people engaged in what is termed informal employment, generating a broad trend toward “informalization” of labor market conditions in developing countries, even when economic growth is proceeding. We consider the relationship between the rise of informalization and the corresponding ascendancy of neoliberal policies in developing countries, focusing in particular on how the decline in average per capita GDP growth associated with neoliberalism has fostered informalization. We then explore policy measures for raising the proportion of decent jobs with core social protections in developing countries—which means, as we argue, reversing the process of informalization. We examine policy measures in two areas: raising the rate of economic growth and improving the regulation of labor markets.

U.S.–Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement: Cementing a Geostrategic Economic Relationship

Devin T. Stewart 06/01/03

By Devin Stewart and Robert C. Fauver, This paper argues that a new set of geopolitical as well as economic circumstances make a U.S.-Japan free trade agreement not only desirable but necessary

Trades Union Congress (Ghana) and Internal Democracy: An Essential Component for Social Engagement

African Labour Research Network (ALRN) 05/22/03

Akua O. Britwum claims that trade unions in Africa should lead the process for developing alternatives that their governments adopt and implement in the pursuit for social change that will take their countries out the present state of dependence.

Current Economic Conditions in Myanmar and Options for Sustainable Growth


David Davice - In this paper, an extensive report on the economy of Myanmar prepared in 1998 is supplemented by more recent reports as of fall 2002 (included as appendices).

Fiscal Strategy for Growth and Employment in Pakistan: An Alternative Consideration

International Labour Organization 05/01/03

Tariq A. Haq - The paper explores Pakistan’s fiscal stance in recent years and presents empirical evidence showing that fiscal deficits in Pakistan since 1980 did not appear to have had any detrimental impact on private investment and GDP growth, nor were they necessarily associated with tangible increases in inflation.

Unelected Government: Making the IMF and the World Bank More Accountable

Ngaire Woods 04/01/03

Ngaire Woods looks at the failures of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in becoming more transparent, more participatory, and more accountable.

Avoiding the Stabilization Trap

Iyanatul Islam
International Labour Organization

This paper by Iyanatul Islam provides an analytical review and some empirical evidence to contend that macroeconomic policy, as currently understood and practiced in many countries, is mired in a ‘stabilization trap’. It seems to be preoccupied with stability at the expense of growth and with fiscal and inflation targets at the expense of employment.

Capital Management Techniques in Developing Countries

Gerald Epstein, Ilene Grabel, Jomo K. S. 04/01/03

This paper uses the term, capital management techniques, to refer to two complementary (and often overlapping) types of financial policies: policies that govern international private capital flows and those that enforce prudential management of domestic financial institutions.

Capital Management Techniques in Seven Developing Countries During the 1990s

Gerald Epstein, Ilene Grabel 04/01/03

Following the Asian crisis of the late 1990's, there has been a renewed interest in the role of capital controls in developing countries within both policy and academic circles. The reasons for this interest are not hard to find. Even strong proponents of capital account liberalization have acknowledged that many countries that avoided the worst effects of recent financial crises were also those that used capital controls, including China, India, Malaysia and Chile.

Bolstering American Influence in Asia

Devin T. Stewart 03/03/03

By Devin Stewart and James C. Farrer, The authors maintain that the U.S. must do more to "get the packaging right" when selling American liberal values to Asia.

Holding Intergovernmental Institutions to Account

Ngaire Woods
Ethics & International Affairs

Ngaire Woods examines how governments and peoples can better hold to account international economic institutions, such as the WTO, the World Bank, and the IMF.

Reconciling Growth and Environment

Global Development and Environment Institute 03/01/03

This paper examines the macroeconomic impacts of growth in terms of several major areas of conflict between economic demands and ecosystem capacities.

Achieving Long-Term Debt Sustainability in All Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs)


By Bernhard G. Gunter. This paper builds on the emerging consensus in the development literature that the enhanced HIPC initiative does not fully remove the debt overhang in many poor and highly indebted countries.

An Analysis of IMF Conditionality

Ariel Buira 02/01/03

Conditionality is perhaps the most controversial aspect of the IMF’s policies. Among the traditional criticisms of Fund conditionality are that it is short-run oriented, too focused on demand management and does not pay adequate attention to its impact on growth, and the effects of programs on social spending and on income distribution.

Capital Flows, Capital Account Regimes, and Foreign Exchange Rate Regimes in Africa


Léonce Ndikumana -  This study examines capital flows and shifts in capital account and exchange rate regimes in African countries over the past two decades. The evidence shows that official lending to Africa has declined while the volume of private capital flows remains low and significantly below the levels observed in other developing regions.

Strengthening Sovereign Lending Through Mechanisms for Dialogue and Debt-Crisis Workout: Issues and Proposals

Barry Herman
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

Governments and their multilateral financial institutions enter into the business of lending to developing countries for policy reasons. The private sector does it for profit. Increasingly, people in international financial circles are asking what is the future of private lending to developing countries, and the answer is coming back that, while the earnings have been good overall, the risks were much higher than expected.In the current era, international investors broadly consider themselves exposed to more risk than perceived in the 1990s, owing to recent stock market crashes and the many prominent failures in corporate governance, let alone the current fears of war and uncertain world economic growth. Institutional and individual investors are thus asking whether they want to add more “high-risk” emerging market “paper” to their portfolios. Even where the answer is yes, they ask how much additional yield is needed to compensate for the perceived higher risk.

Dealing Justly with Debt

Christian Barry 01/05/03

The establishment of an independent debt arbitration panel would help countries to escape and avoid financial crises and protect political rights.

Out of Gear? Economic Policy and Performance in Post-Apartheid South Africa

James Heintz 01/01/03

Growth, Inflation, Redistribution, Employment


Challenges of Growth and Globalization in the Middle East and North Africa

George T. Abed 01/01/03

By George Abed and Hamid Davoodi, The Middle East and North Africa regional economic performance in the past 30 years has been below its potential. This pamphlet takes stock of the region's relatively weak performance, as measured by rate of growth, links to the global economy, and employment generation; explores the reasons for this outcome; and proposes an agenda for urgent reforms.

Malaysia's 1998 Controls: Background, Context, Impacts, Comparisons, Implications, Lessons

Jomo K. S. 01/01/03

Capital controls, Capital flows, Asian crisis


Trade and Labor Standards: A Strategy for Developing Countries

Sandra Polaski 01/01/03

Sandra Polaski argues that recent developments present a new strategic opportunity for developing countries to link trade with domestic policies that promote poverty alleviation, more equitable income distribution, and better working conditions.

Improving the Voice of Developing Countries in the Governance of International Financial Institutions

Stephany Griffith-Jones 01/01/03

By Stephany Griffith-Jones, This paper makes the case for increasing the voice of developing countries in the governance of International Financial Institutions (IFIs).

International Price-Fixing Cartels and Developing Countries: A Discussion of Effects and Policy Remedies

Political Economy Research Institute 01/01/03

The U.S. and E.U. have recently increased prosecution of international cartels; few developing countries have similar enforcement. If these cartels have significant effects on developing economies, the lack of antitrust enforcement is a problem. Geographically limited prosecutions may not provide sufficient disincentives to deter collusion that generates global rents. Prosecutions of international cartels by industrialized countries opens markets to developing country producers, but integration may be undermined if cartels create durable barriers to entry. Western governments are also susceptible to manipulation by cartel members asking for antidumping duties. Thus, developing countries may need their own antitrust enforcement. A recent ruling of the Second Circuit Court of Appeals creates the possibility that developing country consumers may be able to exact remedies in U.S. courts.

The Global Atmospheric Commons

Political Economy Research Institute 12/01/02

PERI Conference Paper Series, by Anil Agarwal and Sunita Narain. As long as the world remains within a carbon-based energy economy, equitable sharing of "atmospheric space" becomes a critical issue, especially for poor developing countries who need the maximum space for their future economic growth.

Harvesting the Rain: Fighting Ecological Poverty Through Participatory Democracy

Political Economy Research Institute 12/01/02

Sunita Narain and Anil Agarwal -  For the rural poor - who depend above all the land for their survival - a central development challenge is to sustain a base of natural capital that can support a robust local economy.

Payments for Environmental Services and Rural Communities: Lessons from the Americas (Draft)


While not a panacea for rural poverty, Payments for Environmental Services (PES) –- when it is inserted into broader strategies geared towards expanding the whole basket of assets in the hands in the poor -– can help to improve rural livelihoods at the same time that it advances environmental goals.

Natural Resource Management and Poverty Alleviation in Mountain Areas: Approaches and Efforts


Natural resources, Environment, Poverty, and Sustainable Development

Summary of Proposals to Reform the System of International Institutions


The aim of this paper, which gathers some of the most important proposals made to reform the system of international institutions, is to form a starting point for reflection on these issues. Due to time and space constraints, it is a non-exhaustive summary, and all suggestions regarding other works not referred to in this paper and which might contain relevant proposals for reform are welcome. The Ad Hoc Secretariat does not necessarily endorse all proposals listed in this paper.

By Núria Molina

A U.S.–Japan Economic Partnership: Beyond Economics, Geopolitical Insurance

Devin T. Stewart 11/13/02

By Devin Stewart and Robert C. Fauver, Authors argue that a new set of circumstances makes a broad reaching Japanese-American trade agreement both feasible and necessary.

The World Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Approach

Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four 11/01/02

By Jim Levinsohn, prepared for the G24 research program. Relative to what would have happened absent the adoption of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process, has the implementation of the PRSP process yielded benefits that exceed its often considerable administrative costs?

Pro-Poor Policies


The objective of this paper is to identify pro-poor policies which while directly impacting on poverty do not have unfavourable consequences on growth and may even promote it.

Globalization and Women in the Middle East

Valentine Moghadam 09/16/02

By Valentine Moghadam, This paper evaluates the impact of globalization on women in the Middle East.

Governing Globalization: Issues and Institutions

Deepak Nayyar
University of Oxford, Department of Economics

Book review of Governing Globalization: Issues and Institutions, by Deepak Nayyar, ed.

Resource Extraction in Developing Countries


By Daryl Reed, This article investigates the nature of these changes and the issues that arise, focusing in particular on the development impact of the activities of these industries and the potential adequacy of different policy approaches to regulating them.

Reasoning about Responsibilities: Mining Company Managers on What Stakeholders are Owed


By Wesley Cragg and Alan Greenbaum. Stakeholder theories propose that managers are responsible not only for maximizing shareholder value, but also for taking into account the well being of other parties affected by corporate decisions. While the language of stakeholder theory has been taken up in industries like mining, controversy remains. Disagreements arise not only about the apportionment of costs and benefits among stakeholders, but about who counts as a stakeholder and about how "costs" and "benefits" are to be conceived. This paper investigates those questions empirically by examining how mangers in one mining company talk about corporate responsibilities and by analysing the explicit and implicit values systems and moral logics which inform this talk.

Trade and Sustainable Development -- An Overview of Some Key Issues

Matthew Stilwell 09/01/02

Matthew Stilwell addresses the role of trade in sustainable development.

Impact Assessment for Macroeconomic Poverty Policy

Rodney Schmidt,
The North-South Institute

With the Millenium Development Goals and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers income distribution and aggregate poverty join growth as objectives of macroeconomic development policy. The purpose of macroeconomic policy impact assessment is to learn from experience about these processes and how they respond to policy. MPIA informs strategic policy choice, addresses primary impacts and links policy reforms to changes in outcomes. We discuss feasible MPIA methods and compare them with other approaches. We propose a framework to help decision-makers to formulate policy immediately and then adjust it as impacts are realized and identified over time via MPIA.

Globalization and the Transition to Egalitarian Development (Draft)

Political Economy Research Institute 09/01/02

Robert Pollin  - I wish to explore what I take to be the basic Griffin question— how can we advance a transition to egalitarian development within the context of globalization? Considering this question in its full scope entails, by definition, examining the global economy as a whole.

The Real Lessons for Developing Countries from the History of the Developed World

Ha-Joon Chang 08/01/02

The historical fact is that today's developed countries did not develop on the basis of the policies and the institutions that they now recommend to, or even force upon, the developing countries.

Employment-Oriented Central Bank Policy in an Integrated World Economy: A Reform Proposal for South Africa

Gerald Epstein 06/01/02

The South African Reserve Bank and Ministry of Finance have adopted inflation targeting and the gradual relaxation of exchange controls (along with control of public spending and financial liberalization) as the foundation of their economic policy in an attempt to win the confidence of foreign investors and to attract more foreign investment.

Can Sustainable Development Survive Neoliberalism?


By David Reed. Presented at the Alternatives to Neoliberalism Conference sponsored by the New Rules for Global Finance Coalition, May 2002.

Domestic Demand-Led Growth: A New Paradigm for Development

Thomas Palley 05/24/02

For the last two decades development policy has been guided by the Washington Consensus. This approach triumphed in the late 1970s, when it replaced import-substitution which emphasizes development of domestic capacities for domestic use purposes.

Improving Financial Markets: Regulatory Proposals to Dampen Disruptions and Deter Distortions

Randall Dodd
New Rules for Global Finance

By Randall Dodd, This paper analyzes the growth in capital flows between advanced and developing economies and whether the liberalization of the regulatory framework for these flows has been the right policy.

Capital Account Controls and Related Measures to Avert Financial Crises

Ilene Grabel
New Rules for Global Finance

By Ilene Grabel,This policy option memo examines how developing countries can use capital controls to manage capital flows in order to decrease their volatility and avert financial crises.

Comments on Capital Accounts Paper

New Rules for Global Finance 05/24/02

By Filomeno S. Sta. Ana III, This paper examines capital flows in theory and in practice with particular attention paid to the example of Chile.

After Neoliberalism: Economic Policies That Work for the Poor

New Rules for Global Finance 05/24/02

A Collection of Papers Presented at The Conference on Alternatives to Neoliberalism, May 23-24, 2002 in Washington, DC

Democratizing Global Economic Governance

Didier Jacobs 05/24/02

This policy option paper explores ways to increase the influence of the poor in global economic governance. Global economic governance is the set of norms and institutions along which rules are generated to manage the global economy.

After Neoliberalism, What?

Dani Rodrik
New Rules for Global Finance

"After more than two decades of application of neoliberal economic policies in the developing world, we are in a position to pass unequivocal judgment on their record. The picture is not pretty."

Global Finance Hurts the Poor

Didier Jacobs
Oxfam America

By Didier Jacobs, report summarizes what we know and still need to know about the impact of global private finance on global poverty.

Delivering on Debt Relief: From IMF Gold to a New Aid Architecture

Nancy Birdsall 04/10/02

By Nancy Birdsall and John Williamson, with Brian Deese, Book review details how case for debt relief can be sustained in a broader effort to combat poverty in the poorest countries.

Global Apparel Production and Sweatshop Labor: Can Raising Retail Prices Finance Living Wages?

Political Economy Research Institute 04/01/02

Robert Pollin, Justine Burns and James Heintz  - This paper provides some empirical evidence on issues raised by the global antisweatshop movement.

Report of the International Conference on Financing for Development

United Nations Financing for Development Office 03/22/02

Restructuring the Global Economy

Randy Hayes
Rainforest Action Network

The globalization of a capitalistic system, with the resulting disregard for nature’s life support systems, the phenomenal cultural diversity across the planet, and the local community values that are the real stuff of our lives, is clearly not a paragon of beauty, excellence, or perfection.

Capacity Utilization, Income Distribution, and the Urban Informal Sector: An Open-Economy Model


Kendall K. Schaefer - This paper develops a two-sector, structuralist, macroeconomic model to analyze the impact of urban informal sector activity on export-led growth policy. The model uses stylized facts from the Johannesburg informal sector and is applicable to countries where informal sector production is concentrated in low-wage goods and commercial services.

Pro-Poor Development: Distribution, Growth and Policy Interactions

J. Mohan Rao 02/01/02

This paper explores the main lines of interaction between growth and distribution to shed light on the potential for pro-poor growth. The historical record over the last twenty years indicates that standard stabilization and adjustment policies, based on the Washington Consensus, have been successful in neither fostering growth nor promoting equity in a majority of developing countries.

Introduction to Macroeconomic Policy, Growth and Poverty Reduction

Terry McKinley
United Nations Development Program

Lively controversies continue on the effect of orthodox structural adjustment policies on growth and poverty reduction. Critics argue that the macroeconomic policies associated with structural adjustment have produced neither significant growth nor poverty reduction. Often the poor are directly harmed by such policies as severe slumps in output and employment follow. Even when growth occurs, it is frequently slow and its impact mitigated by rising inequality.

Redistribution Matters: Growth for Poverty Reduction

Rolph van der Hoeven, 12/01/01

Growth, Income distribution, Poverty


Is Minimum Wage an Effective Tool to Provide Decent Jobs and Reduce Poverty?

Catherine Saget
International Labour Organization

This paper presents a survey of the effects of minimum wage legislation on the level of employment and poverty in selected developing countries.

The Multilateral Trading System: A Development Perspective

Martin Khor
Third World Network

By Martin Khor, This UNDP report states that the current global trading system must be reoriented towards the satisfaction of the needs of the world’s people.

Growth, Income Distribution, and Poverty: A Review


Arne Bigsten and Jörgen Levin -  This paper reviews recent research dealing with the relationships between economic growth, income distribution, and poverty. This generally fails to find any systematic pattern of change in income distribution during recent decades.

Gender, Poverty and Trade

Nilufer Cagatay
United Nations Development Program

By Nilufer Cagatay, This paper focuses on the relationship of trade, on the one hand, with gender and poverty, on the other, within the context of the human development paradigm.

Rebuilding the International Financial Architecture


Sequencing of CAL, Standards, Private sector, IFI reform, Social protection, Emerging markets


The Global Governance of Trade

Dani Rodrik
United Nations Development Program

Dani Rodrik presents an alternative account of economic development, one which questions the centrality of trade and trade policy and emphasizes instead the critical role of domestic institutional innovations.

Public Perceptions And Willingness-To-Pay A Premium For Non-GM Foods In The US and UK


This study by Wanki Moon and Siva K. Balasubramanian uses consumer survey data collected in the United States (US) and United Kingdom (UK) to examine the linkages between subjective risk and benefit perceptions and willingness-to-pay a premium for non-genetically modified (non-GM) foods.

Income Distribution Policies for Faster Poverty Reduction

Tony Addison, Giovanni Cornia
World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)

Inequality has risen in many countries over the last two decades, especially in the transition economies, but also in many developing and developed economies. This is disturbing since little progress can be made in poverty reduction when inequality is high and rising.

Derivatives, the Shape of International Capital Flows, and the Virtue of Prudential Regulation

Randall Dodd
World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)

The paper studies the trend towards the use of securities as a vehicle to transfer capital to developing economies, and how it is linked to the increasing use of derivatives transactions in developing countries.

Capital Account Liberalisation and Poverty

Alex Cobham 04/01/01

This paper aims to contribute to one policy area, that of capital account regulation, and sets out a framework of linkages to poverty. The key conclusion is that while the growth benefits of liberalisation are far from clear for poorer countries, there may be significant costs in poverty terms.

Growth Strategies and Poverty Reduction

Siddiqur Rahman Osmani 02/09/01

Does a strategy that maximizes the rate of growth also represent the best strategy for reducing poverty? Or is there is a tradeoff between maximizing the rate of growth and maximizing the rate of poverty reduction?

Growth and Poverty-Focused Human Development

Terry McKinley 02/01/01

Pro-poor, rapid growth in developing countries could halve income poverty by 2015. Such growth is probably unsustainable without a more equitable distribution of economic resources or political power.

Poverty Reduction and Economic Growth: The Asian Experience

Peter Warr, 02/01/01

Poverty reduction, Growth


On Pro-Poor Government Fiscal Policies


This paper is concerned with the assessment of government fiscal policies from the viewpoint of poverty reduction. A fiscal system has many components. The main objective of the paper is to measure the degree of pro-poorness of various components and how the overall fiscal system can be reformed in order to achieve a maximum reduction in poverty.

Pro-Poor Growth and Pro-Poor Poverty Reduction


Pro-poor growth, Poverty


Accountability, Governance and Reform in the International Financial Institutions

Ngaire Woods 01/01/01

In recent years both the IMF and the World Bank (the IFIs) have become more transparent and more participatory. Yet they are still under pressure from governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) alike to become more accountability.

Washington Contentious: Economic Policies for Social Equity in Latin America

Nancy Birdsall
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Nancy Birdsall, Augusto de la Torre, and Rachel Menezes provide a rich new agenda of economic policies directed at reducing poverty and increasing equity in Latin America without sacrificing growth.

The causes of corruption: A cross-national study


Daniel Treisman analyzes several indexes of perceived corruption compiled from business risk surveys for the 1980s and 1990s, in order to answer the question why is corruption — the misuse of public office for private gain — perceived to be more widespread in some countries than others.

Labour Market and Income Inequality-What Are The New Insights After The Washington Consensus?

Rolph van der Hoeven,
World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)

The economic reform policies in the 1980s and the 1990s under the so-called Washington Consensus have recently led to growing concern for inequality. This paper looks at some of the labour market outcomes of the economic reform policies in terms of inequality. The paper argues that labour market policies, regulations and institutions have at least three goals, improving allocative efficiency (matching supply and demand), improving dynamic efficiency (increasing the quality of the labour force) and improving or maintaining a sense of equity and social justice among labour force participants.

Overriding Jurisdictions in Global Financial Governance, and Long Term Financing for the Poorest Countries

Roy Culpeper 12/01/00

IFI reform, Poverty, Participation, Governance, IMF, World Bank


Regional Monetary Arrangements for Developing Countries


The last decade witnessed a marked rise in regionalism across the developing world. Trade coalitions such as Mercosur became the subject of lively debate in academia and policy circles. And the World Trade Organization has estimated that, by the beginning of the millennium, virtually every developing country had joined some regional commercial agreement.

Getting the Prices Wrong: The Limits of Market-Based Environmental Policy


Frank Ackerman and Kevin Gallagher - Market based policies are fast becoming the recommended policy panacea for all the world’s environmental problems. Implicit in such recommendations is the theory that free markets, adjusted for externalities, can always create an “efficient” allocation of society’s resources.

Globalization and Redistribution: Feasible Egalitarianism in a Competitive World

Political Economy Research Institute 09/01/00

Samuel Bowles -  I present a model of globalization and redistribution to answer the following question: in a liberalized world economy, what programs of egalitarian redistribution and social insurance are implementable by democratic nation states acting independently?

Telling Other Stories: Heterodox Critiques of Neoclassical Micro Principles Texts

Global Development and Environment Institute 08/01/00

Currently, more than one million students take principles of economics classes (introductory micro and macroeconomics) annually in the United States. These courses will be the main contact with formal economic theory for most undergraduates and will influence how they think about economic issues.4 Only a few percent of all students studying introductory microeconomics will likely use a textbook that seriously challenges the neoclassical paradigm.

Two Different Export-oriented Growth Strategies under a Wage-led Accumulation Regime

Political Economy Research Institute 06/24/00

PERI Working Paper Series Number 38, by Özlem Onaran and Engelbert Stockhammer. The aim of the paper is to compare the relationship between distribution, growth, accumulation and employment in Turkey and South Korea.

Towards an Employment Strategy Framework for Sri Lanka (Draft)

International Labour Organization 06/24/00

By Peter Richards, in collaboration with Junko Ishikawa and Martina Lubyova, Employment Strategy Department ILO, Geneva. Sri Lanka has opened up its economy through two waves of economic liberalization. However, in the first round of liberalization and reform, the budget deficit was allowed to go as high as 23 per cent (in 1980), and issues such as the privatization of public enterprises and the tariff and tax structure were not addressed.

Rethinking the Development Agenda

Jose Antonio Ocampo 06/23/00

Liberalization was presented to the developing world as providing a way out of inefficient strategies associated with trade protection and high levels of State intervention, as well as the rent-seeking behaviour that those strategies encouraged. It was also seen as a means of fully exploiting the opportunities generated by globalization. This view represented a significant break with the idea, which underlay development strategies for several decades, that "late industrialization" required a significant degree of State intervention in order to succeed. The Washington Consensus provided one of the best summations of this reform agenda, although it certainly did not reflect the most radical version of this agenda, which called for a minimalist State (Williamson, 1997). It was also, it should be added, a manifestation of the optimism that the reform agenda generated a decade ago.

Pro-Poor Growth and Policies


Pro-poor growth policies


Slow Growth, Destructive Competition, and Low Road Labor Relations: A Keynes-Marx-Schumpeter Analysis of Neoliberal Globalization

Political Economy Research Institute 06/22/00

A central lesson drawn from the experience of the decades between the World Wars was that the economic and political fate of the world could not safely be entrusted to unregulated, free market national and global economic systems. History warned that this was a path to economic instability, global depression and political chaos. In the aftermath of World War II, national economies, even those in which markets played a very powerful role, would be placed under the ultimate control of governments, while international economic relations would be consciously managed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank. Trade was expected to rise in importance, but it was thought at the time that the degree of global financial integration would remain modest, with cross border money flows under tight government control. The global prosperity that characterized the quarter century following the war -- the “Golden Age” of modern capitalism -- reinforced belief in the wisdom of social regulation of economic affairs.

Trade Liberalization and Manufacturing Employment

International Labour Organization 06/22/00

By Ajit K. Ghose, Senior Economist, Employment Strategy Department, Employment Sector, International Labour Office, Geneva

Redressing Ecological Poverty Through Participatory Democracy: Case Studies from India


Natural resources, Environment, Democracy


What is Pro-Poor Growth?


By Nanak Kakwani and Ernesto M. Pernia. This paper attempts to explain the concept of pro-poor growth, and argues that it represents a major departure from the “trickle-down” phenomenon.

The Case for Capital Controls

Political Economy Research Institute 06/22/00

PERI Published Study, by James Crotty. A central lesson drawn from the experience of the decades between the World Wars was that the economic and political fate of the world could not be safely entrusted to unregulated, free market national and global economic systems.

"Assessing Aid" and Global Governance

Rolph van der Hoeven
International Labour Organization

Development aid cannot be allocated purely on criteria of selectivity (selecting recipient countries with good economic policy indicators). Indicators of good economic development are not robust and correlation of these indicators with poverty alleviation is not automatic; more emphasis needs to be given to redistribution policies.

Can Integration Into the World Economy Substitute for a Development Strategy?

Dani Rodrik

It is now well understood that integration into the world economy has highly demanding institutional prerequisites. I shall argue that investing in these prerequisites as the first order of business for development not only closes off alternative development paths, it also crowds out possibly more urgent priorities by diverting human resources, administrative capabilities, and political capital away from other tasks.

Rural Poverty in Developing Countries: Issues and Policies

International Monetary Fund 04/01/00

In most developing countries poverty is more widespread and severe in rural areas than in urban areas. The author reviews some important aspects of rural poverty and draws on key implications for public policy. He presents a policy framework for reducing poverty, taking into account functional differences and overlap between the rural poor. Several policy options are delineated and and explained, including stable management of the macroeconomic environment, transfer of assets, investment in and acess to the physical and social infrastructure, access to credit and jobs, and provisions of safety nets. Finally, some guideposts are identified for assessing strategies to reduce rural pverty.

Economics Forever: Building Sustainability into Economic Policy


 The analysis provided by green or environmental economists demonstrates that positive economic growth is sometimes in fact negative growth when environmental damage caused by industralisation is added to the economic equation – in developing as well as in developed countries.

Visible Hands: Taking Responsibility for Social Development

UN Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) 01/01/00

Globalization with a Human Mask, Chapter 1 from the UNRISD report Visible Hands. Globalization is splintering many societies and doing little to eradicate poverty. Grudgingly, the international financial institutions have conceded that the neoliberal model has harmful consequences. But they prefer to mask the damage rather than shift to more humane—and more productive—forms of development.

Genetically Modified Crops, World Trade and Food Security

Oxfam International 11/01/99

This OXFAM report recommends an international moratorium on the commercial growing of GM crops to allow 1) further scientific assessment of socio-economic, health and environmental impacts, 2) public debate on biotechnology, 3) establishment of national regulatory systems, and 4) adoption of legislation creating company liability for adverse effects.

Beyond ‘Substantial Equivalence’


by Erik Millstone, Eric Brunner and Sue Mayer, This paper argues that showing that a genetically modified food is chemically similar to its natural counterpart is not adequate evidence that it is safe for human consumption.

Worlds Apart? The Reception of Genetically Modified Foods in Europe and the U.S.


George Gaskell, Martin W. Bauer, John Durant, and Nicholas C. Allum present the results of survey research on public perceptions of biotechnology in Europe and the United States during 1996–1997, together with an analysis of press coverage and policy formation.

Globalization and Employment: New Opportunities, Real Threats

Panos London 05/01/99

Panos Briefing: Globalisation – the move towards a global economy where national borders cease to matter – has changed the face of the world in which we live.

Globalization and the Fiscal Autonomy of the State

J. Mohan Rao
Political Economy Research Institute

Public finance in less developed countries is the focal point - both as source and destination - of many of the dilemmas and conflicts posed by development. Revenue mobilization for the allocative, distributive and stabilization functions of the state is severely constrained by the narrowness and instability of the tax base.

The Coffers Are Not Empty: Financing for Sustainable Development and the Role of the UN

Global Policy Forum 07/01/98

Financial issues have been at the centre of the North-South debate since the 1960s. Jens Martens and James A. Paul argue that arguements between North and South have taken place over "means of implementation" - that is, money to finance the agreed programs of action.

Comparison of National Poverty Reduction Strategies: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Mali and Senegal


Jean-Luc Dubois - The objective of this paper is to highlight the main common features - and to explain the reasons for the differences - of the poverty reduction strategies presently implemented in four particular sub-Saharan Africa countries : Cameroon, Ethiopia, Mali and Senegal.

Russia and the Ukraine


The transitions of the republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU) share common features: The Newly Independent States of the FSU all experienced dramatic drops in real GDP, rapid inflation, sharp increases in inequality and rising poverty. With the exception of the three Baltic states, these transitions have not been especially successful. Many have yet (as of mid-1997) to resume growth; none has been able to record rapid growth. Although many have overcome the near hyperinflation of the early transition years, inflation rates remain in double digit figures for most of these countries.

A Comparative Analysis of Selected Asian Countries

United Nations Development Program 06/21/97

By A. R. Khan. Commissioned by the UNDP. This paper makes a comparative analysis of national poverty reduction experience in eight Asian countries—Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand—on the basis of the findings of the country studies recently completed under the auspices of the United Nations Development Programme.

Transition to the Market and Poverty Alleviation Strategies: Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania


By Irena Topiñska, University of Warsaw, Department of Economics. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the newly emerging patterns of poverty and poverty alleviation policies in four countries undergoing transition to market economy.

Comparative Study of National Poverty-Reduction Strategies: Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Burkina Faso, Madagascar


Marc Raffinot -The present study is in fact a comparative analysis of four earlier case studies: Benin (Charmes, 1997), Burkina Faso (Raffinot, 1997), Côte d'Ivoire (Nshimyumuremyi, 1997) and Madagascar (Razafindrakoto, 1997). This study will therefore limit itself to general aspects that are common to the four economies.

Poverty Reduction

Terry McKinley
United Nations Development Program

The present Technical Support Document results from the efforts of members of the Social Development and Poverty Elimination Division (SEPED) of the Bureau for Policy and Programme Support (BPPS), UNDP, to determine the implications for macroeconomic policy of the focus on poverty reduction as a central objective of economic policy. The articles are intended to help identify policy options consistent with the focus on poverty reduction from a sustainable human development perspective. This volume is organized around a core paper by Terry McKinley, "The Macroeconomic Implications of Focusing on Poverty Reduction." The paper addresses key issues for the construction of a macroeconomic framework which can enable a country to carry out effective poverty reduction strategies. The accompanying articles in the volume represent important contributions by economists that touch on key areas of macroeconomic policy which, as Terry McKinley's article points out, have been the subject of debate.

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